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Biology Reviewer

By francisarticulo Mar 23, 2014 629 Words
Biology Reviewer
I. Definition of the cell
-Cell is the basic unit/structure of life

II. History of cell
A. (1665) Robert Hooke- discovered the cell and he established the drawing of a cork cell B. (1674) Anton van Leeuwenhoek- observed red blood cell and myriad in a single cell organism in Pond water -discovered the nucleus -completed the microscope C. Francesco Redi (1627-1697) and Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799)- disproved the Theory of Spontaneous Generation [di ko sure kung kasama] D. (1831) Robert Brown- stated that all cells contain a fundamental structure called the nucleus that contains the DNA (he just followed up yung kay Anton van L. ) E. (1835) Felix Dujardin –discovered an internal substance that is colloidal in structure he called it the Sarcode or cytoplasm. F. (1838) Matthias Schleiden (sa plants) Theodore Schwann ( sa animals)- Matthias Schleiden stated that all plants are composed of cell. After a year, Schwann concluded that all animals are made up of cells G. (1858)- Rudolph Virchow- stated that all cells come from pre-existing cells

III. Cell theory
A. All living things are made up of cells
B. All living things come from pre-existing cells by the process of cell division C. Cells are the basic unit of life.

IV. Functions inside the cell
A. Nutrition- obtain food molecules
B. Digestion- food particles are broken down
C. Absorption- cells absorb water and materials
D. Biosynthesis- organize chemicals to form substances
E. Excretion- wastes are eliminated
F. Locomotion- movement of cells
G. Reproduction (through cell division)- process by which cell copies and replicates DNA H. Respiration- breaking down food to produce energy for other cell function I. Response to Stimulus

V. Parts and Functions of the cell
A. Cell Membrane
Double later of phospholipid layer (phosphate and lipid group)

*Since protein and carbohydrates cannot go through the cell membrane there are Protein Receptor and Carbohydrates Receptor [ATA] -protects the cell
-boundary between the cell and its environment
-gives form and shape to the cell
-connects the cell to another

B. Cytoplasm
-Jellylike material
-colorless to translucent
- where the organelles are suspended
- where one process of cell respiration happens

C. Organelles

-Rod shaped organelle that has two parts: matrix and cristae - Where ATP is produced
-where cellular respiration occurs
Plant and Animal cell only

2. Endoplasmic Reticulum

a. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
b. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
-long strands of membrane that connects the nucleus to the plasma - has ribosomes attached to it

-Has no ribosomes

-protein synthesis

-lipid synthesis

Plant and Animal Cell only

3. Golgi Apparatus
Series of vesicles that are membrane bound
-Where the proteins and lipids are packaged for distribution

Plant and animal cell only

4. Vacuoles
Fluid filled cavity that are membrane bound

*just in case na ipa-label yung parts sa exam, mas malaki yung vacuoles kaysa sa lysosomes. Where food and water are stored for future use
Plant and animal cell only

5. Lysosomes
Membrane bound organelle that is full of hydrolytic enzymes Causes apoptosis or cell death
Plant and animal cell only

6. Cytoskeleton
Consists of microtubules in a complex network
Gives shape and support
Plant and Animal Cell only

D. Nucleus

1. Nuclear pore
2. Nuclear membrane
3. Nucleolus
4. Nucleoplasm
Spherical structure located at the center of the cell

1. exit, entrance of materials
2. protects the nucleus
3. where the chromosomes are located
4. holds the chromosomes
Animal and Plan Cell only

E. Special Parts

1. Cell Wall
-made of tough substance called cellulose
Same function as the cell membrane
Plant Cell only

2. plastids
Double membrane
Involves in manufacturing food during photosynthesis
Plants only

VI. Prokaryote and Eukaryote

Prokaryote (bacteria cell )
Eukaryote(plant and animal cell )
1. has no nuclear membrane
1. has nuclear membrane
2. has no defined nucleus
2. has defined nucleus
3. single strand DNA
3. double strand DNA

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