Chapter 1: Biology and Tree of Life
• What are the five fundamental characteristics of all living organisms?
- Energy - all organisms acquire and use energy
- Cells - made up of membrane-bound cells
- Information - process heredity info. encoded in genes as well as info. from environment - Replication - all are capable of reproduction
- Evolution - populations of organisms are continuing to evolve
• What is the cell theory?
- All organisms are made of cells (pattern), and
- All cells come from pre-existing cells (process)
• What are the three major groups of organisms?
- Eukaryotes - Eukarya
- Prokaryotes - Bacteria/Archaea
• What is a phylogenic tree?
-A phylogenetic tree reflects relationships between species. Branches that share a recent common ancestor represent species that are closely related; branches that don’t share recent common ancestors represent species that are more distantly related
Chapter 2: Microorganisms
• Compare autotrophs and heterotrophs.
∙ Autotrophs: use their energy source (light/inorganic compounds) to obtain their Carbon from CO2
- Photo-autotroph: use their energy source (light) to obtain carbon from CO2
- Chemo-autotroph: use their energy source (inorganic chemicals) to obtain carbon from CO2
∙ Heterotrophs: tend to get their carbon from other organic compounds because they feed off of other organisms.
Chapter 3: Origins & Diversity of Green Plants
• Define the following terms:
Phylogenetics: study of evolutionary relationships among group of organisms
Synapomorphies: a shared, derived trait found in two or more taxa that’s present in their most recent common ancestor
Natural selection: the process by which individuals with certain heritable traits tend to produce more surviving offspring (increasing its fitness) than do individuals without those traits, often leading to a change in genetic makeup of the population (increasing variation)