top-rated free essay

Bio Cell Summary

By joanneok Jul 18, 2013 1112 Words
Yr 12 Biology Summary Notes Rangitoto College 2006
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN CELLS

Achievement Standard 90464 – Biology 2.8 – Describe cell structure and function TYPES OF CELLS
• PROKARYOTIC CELLS = more primitive, unicellular, have no organised nucleus, no membrane-bound organelles, genetic material is 1 circular DNA molecule, can have tiny extra rings of DNA called plasmids, all have cell walls e.g. bacteria and blue-green algae

• EUCARYOTIC CELLS = unicellular or multi-cellular, plant and animal cells, have a nucleus, have membrane-bound organelles, DNA is wound around histone proteins e.g. all plant and animal cells, Euglena, Paramecium, Amoeba, yeast

|ORGANELLE |WHERE FOUND |STRUCTURE |FUNCTION | |Cell(Plasma) |Plant & animal cells, |- 2 layers of phospho-lipids |- boundary between cell and environment | |Membrane |All pro & eukaryotes |- hydrophilic end = to water |- regulates flow of substances in and out | | | |- hydrophobic end = to centre |- proteins involved in transport | | |surrounds cytoplasm |- globular proteins in layer |- cell recognition | | | |- carbohydrates project out | | | | |- cholesterol in lipid tails | | |Cytoplasm |Plant & animal cells |- jelly-like fluid made up of water, ions, |- where most cell reactions occur | | |All pro & eukaryotes |small molecules and proteins |- supports organelles | | | | | | | |inside cell membrane and | | | | |outside nucleus | | | |Chromosomes/ |Plant & animal cells, |- made up of DNA (deoxy-ribose nucleic acid)|- carries genetic code for making proteins e.g.| |Genetic Material |All pro & eukaryotes | |enzymes, hormones | | | |- with histones if eukaryotic | | | |inside nucleus if eukaryotes | | | |Ribosome |Plant & animal cells, |- made of ribosomal RNA that is made in the |- site of protein synthesis | | |All pro & eukaryotes |nucleolus of the nucleus |- free ribosomes make proteins needed in | | | |- made of 2 sub-units |cytoplasm | | |free in cytoplasm or on rough |- non-membranous |- ribosomes on ER (rough ER) make proteins to | | |ER, commonly found in secretory| |be transported/ secreted out of cell | | |cells | | | | | | | | |Nuclear |Plant & animal cells, |- double membrane (outer and inner) |- surrounds nucleoplasm and DNA | |Membrane |Eukaryotes only |- connected to ER |- large pores/holes to allow material in and | | | | |out | | |surrounds nucleus | | | |Nucleus |Plant & animal cells, |- large round organelle that contains |- contains DNA that codes for all proteins | | |Eukaryotes only |genetic material |needed by the cell | | | |- has a nucleolus (dense attaining region) |- nucleolus makes RNA to make ribosomes and | | |centre of animal cell, side of | |protein synthesis | | |plant cell | | | |Mitochondrion/a |Plant & animal cells, |- oval shape |- aerobic respiration process = the breakdown | | |Eukaryotes only |- inner and outer membrane |of glucose in the presence of oxygen to provide| | | |- inner forms folds (large SA) called |the cell with energy in the form of ATP | | |free in cytoplasm, |cristae (have enzymes) |(happens cristae & matrix) | | |found in large numbers in cells|- fluid is called the matrix |- outer membrane controls entry & exit of | | |that need a lot of energy | |materials | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Vacuole |Plant & animal cells |- fluid-filled spaces surrounded by a |- turgidity, storage of food and H2O, storage | | |Eukaryotes only |membrane |of toxic substances for later release and | | | |- many and smaller in animals |contain pigments (provide colour) in PLANTS, | | |centre of plant cell, |- one large & central in plants |- storage of food in animals and to get rid of | | |scattered in animal | |water (contractile) | |Endoplasmic |Plant & animal cells, |- flattened membrane stacks throughout the |- extensive transport system | |Reticulum (ER) |Eukaryotes only |cell |- collection, storage and distribution of | | | |- has a system of channels |proteins, lipids and steroids | | |throughout cell and connected |- rough ER with ribosomes |- rough ER produce and package proteins made by| | |to nuclear and cell membrane. |- smooth ER without |ribosomes | | |Secretory cells have lots of | |- smooth ER synthesises lipids and steroids | | |rough ER e.g. liver, pancreas. | |which bud off in vesicles and go to the Golgi | | |Glands and testes have lots | |apparatus for secretion, makes membrane | | |smooth ER to make lipid based | | | | |hormones (steroids) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Lysosome |Plant & animal cells, |- small vesicles surrounded by membrane |- release enzymes to break down worn-out | | |Eukaryotes only |formed from Golgi Body containing digestive |organelles | | | |enzymes |- digest material taken into cell or release | | |free in cytoplasm | |enzymes out of cell | |Golgi Body/ |Plant & animal cells, |- made of stacks of flattened sacs called |- transport and storing of lipids from ER | |Apparatus |Eukaryotes only |cisternae |- modifying and secreting chemicals from ER | | | |- form from vesicles that pinch off end of |like enzymes, lipids | | |in cytoplasm, |rough ER |- formation of lysosomes | | |common in secretory cells in |- 1 side of Golgi Body receives vesicles | | | |animals, only have 1 Golgi, |from ER and the other side releases new | | | |plants have many |chemicals for transport through cytoplasm | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Cell Wall |Plant cells only, |- made of tiny cellulose fibres in a |- strength to support cell | | |All prokaryotes |criss-cross pattern |- can become turgid without bursting | | | |- permeable to water unless lignin added so | | | |outside cell membrane |needs channels called plasmodesmata | | |Chloroplast |Photosynthetic plant cells |- oval shape |- site of photosynthesis = using chlorophyll to| | |only, |- inner and outer membrane |absorb light and combine CO2 and H2O to produce| | |Eukaryotes only |- flattened sacs called thylakoids are found|glucose (chemical energy) and O2 | | | |in stacks called grana |- chlorophyll is a green pigment that traps | | |free in cytoplasm |- fluid is stroma |light | | | |- can store starch grains | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Centrioles |Animal cells only, |- made of 2 rod shaped structures composed |- for cell division | | |Most unicellular protists |of bundles of microtubules |- move to opposite ends of cell and form | | | |- at right angles to each other |spindle/”muscle fibres” to pull chromosomes | | |in cytoplasm just outside the | |apart | | |nucleus | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Cilia |Animal cells only, some |- many, short “hair-like” projections |- move chemicals about and over surface of cell| | |unicellular protists |- made of 9 pairs of fine tubules around 2 |e.g. line trachea of human | | | |central filaments |- move the cell e.g. Paramecium | | |project from surface | | | |Flagellum/a |Animal cells only, some |- long ‘hair-like” projection |- help a cell to move e.g. sperm cell, bacteria| | |unicellular protists, |- made of 9 pairs of fine tubules around 2 | | | |prokaryotes |central filaments | | | | |- usually occur singly | | | |project from surface | | | | | | | | |Eyespot |Photosynthetic |- small orange granule containing |- detects light intensity so cell can move | | |unicellular organisms or |carotenoids pigment that is light sensitive |towards light and maximise photosynthesis | | |protists only | | | | |e.g. Euglena | | | | | | | | | |found at front end | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Contractile |Freshwater unicellular animals |- membrane-bound organelles that are |- maintain water balance in cell by collecting | |Vacuole |only, e.g. Paramecium, Amoeba |surrounded by mitochondria |water that comes in by osmosis and expelling | | |(Protozoans) | |it, using energy, out of the cell | | | | |- stops cell exploding | | |found in cytoplasm | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Oral Groove |Some unicellular animal |- ciliated channel (has cilia) |- beating cilia pull surrounding fluid into | | |protists only, | |oral groove for feeding | | |e.g. Paramecium | |- food vacuole forms at the end of the oral | | | | |groove, then digested | | |found on one side | | |

CELLS THAT DON’T HAVE NUCLEI = Phloem sieve tube cells (transport sugars)
Red blood cells (carry oxygen)
The lack of a nucleus allows more room for their respective functions.

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • Cell Bio Lab

    ...Cell Biology Lab - Homework 1 Due to the week of Oct. 6-10th This is NOT a lab group project. Do the work individually. You may use any source other than your fellow students. Show your work, use your own words and cite all references. 1. (20 points) The HeLa S3 cancer cell line is considered to be “continuous” due to acquired...

    Read More
  • Exam 1 Cell BIO

    ...Chapter 1 Cell Theory- in the 18th century, two scientists came up with the cell theory. Schleiden and Schwen. 3 corollaries of the cell theory: -all cells are alike in chemical composition -all cells store and process information in the same way -all cells arise from other cell through cell division 5 types of different Microscopes 1...

    Read More
  • Bio 12 Vocab Cell Structure

    ...Cell Structure Vocabulary Cell Membrane → the semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell. Cell Wall → a rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria. In the algae and higher plants, it consists mainly of cellulose. Cellular Respiration → A series o...

    Read More
  • Bio - Cells

    ...Chemistry questions COPY AND PASTE INTO A WORD DOCUMENT 1. What information would you need to calculate the atomic mass of an atom? The atomic number, the number of neutrons and add the numbers together. This is the atomic mass. 2. What information would you need to determine the atomic number of an atom? The number of protons in the n...

    Read More
  • Bio Cells

    ...is about a 6 Mineral 5: Quartz 100% I am positive this is Quartz. The color is white and it’s streak is white. It’s luster has shiny , no reaction to acid, specific gravity is 2.6, has a fracture when struck and hardness is about a 9. Mineral 6: Gypsum 95% I am pretty positive this is Gypsum. The color is white and it’s streak is ...

    Read More
  • Cell Bio

    ...the membrane is rinsed with distilled water and blot dry with a paper towel then air dry for thirty minutes. Results Cod contained the most number of bands, showing the presence of more variation of proteins in comparison to the other fish. Cod and Pollock had similar markings. Rainbow trout and Tilapia contained the least number of bands and ...

    Read More
  • Cell Bio Exam 1 Review

    ...Cell Biology Study Guide- Exam 1_______________________________________________ EXAMPLES OF MULTIPLE CHOICE/ TRUE AND FALSE QUESTIONS 1. Which of the following about the Cell Theory is FALSE? a) All cells come from preexisting cells through division b) All organisms consist of one or more cells c) The cell is the basic unit of structure...

    Read More
  • cell bio lab report

    ...Cell Surface Glycoprotein Receptor Analysis Using Concanavalin A Purpose: During this experiment we compared the hemagglutination reaction of control Con A solution at 2 mg/ml in Con A buffer with the hemagglutination reaction of your own purified Con A sample that you diluted previously at 2 mg/ml in Con A buffer. The purpose of this la...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.