Bio 3U

Topics: DNA, Blood, Allele Pages: 40 (7799 words) Published: April 15, 2014
Bio Review: Unit 1
Diversity of Living Things

Diversity- all the different kinds of life on Earth
Species Diversity- variety of species, abundance of the species in a given area Genetic Diversity- variation of genes within a species
Ecosystem Diversity- diverse range of habitats, various organisms within habitats & relationships between them

Prokaryotes
Eukaryote
Appearance

Size
- Always smaller
- 1000x larger
DNA structure
- Plasmid (one strand circular DNA)
- Dna in nucleoid area
- Chromatin in nucleus (chromosomes)
- Multiple chromosomes in pairs
Nuclear Region
- Nucleoid area
- No membrane-bound nucleus
- Membrane bound nucleus
- Nucleolus
Complexity
- No true organelles
- Simple structure
- All organelles (developed)
- Much more complex
Reproduction
- Binary fission
- Mitosis (somatic), meiosis (gametes)
Examples
- Bacteria, archaea
- All other cells (kingdoms)

Classification

3 Domains
Archaea, bacteria, eukarya (protists, plants, animals, fungi) 6 Kingdoms
Bacteria, archaea, plants, animals, fungi, protists

Taxonomy
Created by Carolus Linnaeus
Classified using morphology of organisms
All species given a Latin scientific name

Hierarchy of Groups
Organisms that look alike are placed in groups called taxon
Kingdom > Phylum > Class > order > family > genus > species King Phillips Crossed Oceans For Great Sex
As you move down the system, each taxon contains fewer species Binomial nomenclature: (genus name, species name)

Dichotomous key- identify organisms using their morphology (linear path) Common ancestry- different species evolved form one common ancestor (the more recent the ancestor, the fewer the differences in DNA) Phylogeny- studying the evolutionary relationships between/among species Phylogenetic analysis- compare current living species with extinct species Phylogenetic tree- branching diagram representing a hypothesis for evolutionary relationships between organisms (common ancestors) Clade- taxonomic group containing a single ancestor species and all its descendants

Viruses
Microscopic entities, reproduce in a living cell
Do not have any cellular structures (cytoplasm, organelles, cell membrane) Little more than mobile genes that parasitize other genes
2 main parts: capsid (outer protein coat), nucleic acid (DNA or RNA, single/double stranded, linear/circular form) Not considered livings things (don’t respire, metabolize, respond to stimulus, grow, does reproduce)

Classification
By capsid shape (polyhedral, spherical, cylindrical, head & tail) or nucleic acid core (dna or rna)

Retrovirus
Have rna rather than dna, less stable
70% of viruses are retroviruses
Replication takes place in the cytoplasm (dna viruses replicate in nucleus) Higher mutation rates than dna viruses

Reproduction
Must reproduce inside a living cell, kills host cell
Virus is specific to it’s type of host cell

Lysogenic Cycle
Reproductive cycle of proviruses
Provirus- dna integrates with the host cell chromosomes during replication; invades the cell but does not kill it May remain inactive for many generations, eg. HIV, herpes

Lytic Cycle
Virus depends entirely on the metabolism of its host cell to replicate their dna & make protein coat for each new virus particle

Kingdom Bacteria
Prokaryotes, live as single cells/colonies
Most are useful (not harmful) to humans, produce food products, essential to ecosystems, few are pathogenic (disease causing)

Classifying Bacteria
1) By shape: cocci, bacilli, spirilli / by grouping: diplo, staphylo, strepto 2) By cell wall: use gram stain, either gram+ (thick protein layer, test purple) or gram- (thin protein layer, test pink/red) 3) By energy source:

Heterotroph: takes organic molecules from environment/eats other organisms Photoautotroph: photosynthesizes
Photoheterotroph: mix of heterotroph & photoautotroph
Chemoheterotroph: uses energy released through...
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