Atlantic Slave Trade

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Read p.435-440 notes/MI
The Atlantic slave trade
MI: Trade was the basis of Portuguese relations with Africans, the Portuguese provided African rulers with slaves in return they received ivory, pepper, animal skin and gold.
· Portuguese ships pushed down the west of Africa coast and reached the cape of good hope
· They established factories, forts and trading posts with resident merchants, along the cost
· El mina(1482) was the most important, it was a gold producing region
· Africans acquired goods from the Portuguese, the Portuguese would provide African rulers with slaves in return they received ivory, pepper, animal skin and gold
· Trade was the basis of Portuguese relations with Africans
· Senegambia were there enemies they were Muslims
· Missionary efforts were made to convert the rulers of Benin, Kongo, and other African kingdoms
· Kongo ruler, Nzinga Mvembra and his family converted, with the help of Portuguese advisors and missionaries, brought the whole kingdom to Christianity
· Images of Portuguese soldiers and traders began to appear in the bronzes of Benin and they carved ivory sculptures of the other African people
· Luanda became the basis for Portuguese colony of Angola
· Although for a long time Portugal was interested in pepper, gold, and other products, a central element in this pattern was slave trade
· By 1460 some 500 slaves per year arrived in Portugal as a trade with African rulers developed
Trend toward Expansion
MI: The Atlantic slave trade drew slaves from across the continent, between 1450-1850, it is estimated that about 12 million slaves were shipped across the Atlantic.
· Between 1450-1850, it is estimated that about 12 million slaves were shipped across the Atlantic, with mortality rate of 10-20%, about 10-11 million actually made it to the Americas
· The 18th century was the great age of the Atlantic slave trade, probably more than 7 million slave were being exported from 1700-1800
· Cuba

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