Key Vocabulary from Colonial Period 11th Grade APUSH
New World Beginnings:
1. Black Legend: Term used to describe the belief that the Spanish only killed, tortured, and stole in the Americas while doing nothing good. Spaniards were given the image of cruel and intolerant human being. This term was made popular mostly by the works of Julian Juderias, in his book “La Leyenda Negra”, translated as “The Black Legend”. This definition exemplifies the mistreatment of Spain and its people.
2. Columbian Exchange: The unintentional exchange of plants, animals, diseases, technologies between the New and Old worlds. Technologies traded included a written alphabet, farming tactics, and new firearms and weapons. Plants included were sugarcane, maize and potatoes. These new food crops helped to increase the population in both the New and Old Worlds. The introduction of new diseases such as Smallpox and Polio balanced out the sudden boom in population.
3. Conquistadores: Spanish soldiers who sought riches and power for themselves and wealth and glory for Spain in the conquest of the Americas. A conquistador includes any one of the Spanish people who traveled to America to try and seize new land and goods. Famous conquistadors include Hernan Cortes and Francisco Pizarro.
4. Encomienda: A brutal Spanish system designed to reward conquistadores in the New World by granting them local villages and control over native labor. In this system, important Spaniards were given native slave communities. The Spanish would provide protection and education for the laborers. This wasn’t thought to be anything like slavery, but in reality was just a glorified form of slavery. This led to some of the greatest problems in the colonial era.
5. Aztecs and Cortes: The Aztecs are Indian peoples in Mexico who shaped stunningly sophisticated civilizations with advanced agricultural practices, elaborate cities, far-flung commerce, and human sacrifices; their