Key Vocabulary from Colonial Period
11th Grade APUSH
New World Beginnings:
1. Black Legend: Term used to describe the belief that the Spanish only killed, tortured, and stole in the Americas while doing nothing good. Spaniards were given the image of cruel and intolerant human being. This term was made popular mostly by the works of Julian Juderias, in his book “La Leyenda Negra”, translated as “The Black Legend”. This definition exemplifies the mistreatment of Spain and its people. 2. Columbian Exchange: The unintentional exchange of plants, animals, diseases, technologies between the New and Old worlds. Technologies traded included a written alphabet, farming tactics, and new firearms and weapons. Plants included were sugarcane, maize and potatoes. These new food crops helped to increase the population in both the New and Old Worlds. The introduction of new diseases such as Smallpox and Polio balanced out the sudden boom in population. 3. Conquistadores: Spanish soldiers who sought riches and power for themselves and wealth and glory for Spain in the conquest of the Americas. A conquistador includes any one of the Spanish people who traveled to America to try and seize new land and goods. Famous conquistadors include Hernan Cortes and Francisco Pizarro. 4. Encomienda: A brutal Spanish system designed to reward conquistadores in the New World by granting them local villages and control over native labor. In this system, important Spaniards were given native slave communities. The Spanish would provide protection and education for the laborers. This wasn’t thought to be anything like slavery, but in reality was just a glorified form of slavery. This led to some of the greatest problems in the colonial era. 5. Aztecs and Cortes: The Aztecs are Indian peoples in Mexico who shaped stunningly sophisticated civilizations with advanced agricultural practices, elaborate cities, far-flung commerce, and human sacrifices; their population reached up to 20 million. Their capital city was Tenochtitlan. Hernan Cortes was a Spaniard who conquered Aztecs in Mexico 1519-1521. 6. Pope’s Rebellion: Indian uprising in New Mexico in 1680 in which Catholic churches were destroyed and priests and Spanish settlers were killed. The groups of Indians were called the Pueblos. The Pueblos revolted against the lords of their encomiendas to gain physical freedom, but also against the church, for religious freedom. They wanted to be able to keep their own unique religion and culture so it could remain prominent in the lands, and not be wiped out forever. 7. Bartolome de Las Casas: Spanish missionary who was appalled by the encomienda system in Hispaniola and called it "a moral pestilence invented by Satan". Known as an outspoken advocate for natives in Spain. He spoke out against the horrid crimes committed by Columbus and Cortes. 8. Treaty of Tordesillas: Treaty between Spain and Portugal (1494) that divided lands of the New World; majority went to Spain, but Portugal received lands in Africa, Asia, and Brazil. This treaty was drawn up to solve the dispute created by the return of Christopher Columbus and crew.
The Planting of English America:
1. Sir Walter Raleigh: An English courtier (Elizabeth I), poet and author who was inspired by half-brother Sir Humphrey Gilbert, he gathered a group of settlers who landed on Roanoke Island in 1585, they vanished later on. His second attempt in 1587 was also a failure. Sir Walter has also been accredited to introducing potatoes and tobacco to Britain, although they were already relevant products before he brought them back from the Americas. His attempts to colonize may have all been failures, but they started the trend of English persons sailing to America to establish colonies. 2. Elizabeth I: Queen of England from 1558-1603. Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn and successor of Mary Tudor. Her main goal while in power was to return England to the Protestant...
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