NAACP- African American civil rights organization, equality of rights of all persons, eliminate discrimination
Gunner Myrdal- Swedish scholar who wrote The American Dilemma, talked about the contradiction between racism and democracy
Thurgood Marshall- NAACP’s leading attorney, changed legal decisions, behind the scenes
Brown v. Topeka- social jurisprudence, overturned Plessy v. Ferguson, said US had to desegregate schools
Earl Warren- liberal Republican, appointed as chief justice to remove competition
Rosa Parks- Montgomery bus boycott
MLKJ- minister of Baptist Church, pacifist, non-violent, set example of moral courage and civil rights
Litter Rock- refused to integrate schools, Eisenhower sends in federal troops against the mob of whites
SCLC- Southern Christian Leadership Conference, basically like Martin Luther’s group except with violence
CORE-Congress of Racial Equality, more willing to force confrontations, James Farmer and “freedom riders” went on a bus trip to the South to riot
SNCC- Student non-violent Coordinating Committee, younger generation of blacks growing impatient
James Meredith- black applicant to segregated U of Mississippi
Letters from a Birmingham Jail- MLK’s non-violent breaking of the law, fill up jails
Malcolm X- separatist, black Muslim who emphasized black community, do whatever to gain civil rights
Civil Rights Act of 1964-barred discrimination in public, outlawed discrimination by race, religion, sex, and origin
Voting Rights Act of 1965- did away with the grandfather clause, literacy test, etc.
Black Panthers- used violence as a tool
Black Power- defiant symbol of gloved fist lifted high in air, recover the African American culture, “black and beautiful”
LBJ- vice president of JFK, kind of a really cocky douche, knew how to manipulate, supported the underdogs, and obviously from Texas
Great Society- what LBJ wanted in America, social reforms set to eliminate poverty and racial injustice, reform capitalism, active government, intellectual experts
Michael Harrington- The Other America, persistence of poverty
Economic Opportunity Act-address every major part of poverty, Job Corps- loaned money to rural families and small businesses
VISTA- Volunteers in Service to America, basically domestic Peace Corps
Barry Goldwater- ran against LBJ, loses by a landslide, anti-commie and an extremist,
George Wallace- the other candidate, probably could’ve won, but dropped out of race
Medicare- provided elderly with health insurance,
Medicaid- see above, except with poor
HUD- Housing and Urban Development, Robert Weaver said to subsidize rent for poor and unstable households
Immigration Act of 1965- does away with National Origins Act, helped immigrant families to unite, Congress feared a huge influx of Mexicans
Gideon v. Wainright- said all citizens have right to legal council
Miranda v. Arizona- have to have your rights read to you (i.e. right to remain silent, to an attorney, go watch CSI or something)
Engle v. Vitale- schools cannot force students to pray, stupidest thing ever.
Griswold v. Connecticut- right to privacy, so Nate can’t stalk people
Baker v. Carr- one person one vote
Tom Hayden- activist in animal, anti-war, civil rights
SDS- students for democratic society, “participatory democracy”, more active and confrontational
Port Huron Statement- where the SDS gave their manifesto, caused an increase in political and culture conflict
Counterculture- experimentation with sex and drugs and all that good stuff, wanted a “perfect society”, rejected materialism and shallowness, go look at Mr. Richard’s yearbook photo again and you got it.
Beatles- basically the Justin Bieber’s of the time, really appealed to the middle class kids whose lives didn’t really suck but still sucked.
Bob Dylan- extremely stoned most of the time, really sucked at singing, “don’t worry, be happy!” (and smoke some weed) yeaaah!
Woodstock- according to Richards “just a concert” (3 pure days of sex and drugs and music, typical?), hippies found out they weren’t the only ones (shocking), and businesses discovered a whole new market.
New Journalism- used “unconventional” literary techniques.
Kent State- students opposed to the war (the invasion of Cambodia), National Guard sent in, 4 students shot to death
Ho Chi Minh- Vietnamese revolutionist who hated French influence of Vietnam (can you blame him?), Commie, organized revolutionary activity, unites Vietnam under nationalist gov
Ngo Dinh Diem- Eisenhower installed him as a non-commie leader for Vietnam, really disliked (probably cuz he spoke French and was Catholic), later overthrown and assassinated.
Domino Theory- the theory that if one country falls to Communism, all of them will, which is a load of BS
Robert McNamara- defense secretary of LBJ
Tonkin Gulf Incident- N. Vietnam shoots at American destroyer Maddox, opens aggression on seas
Tonkin Gulf Resolution- LBJ gets authority from Congress to take “all means necessary” to repel armed attacks and prevent future aggression
Escalation- increase US attack or withdraw, increasing pressure till enemy gives up, fails
Operation Rolling Thunder- systematic bombing to cut confidence and supplies of N. Vietnam, fails
William Westmoreland- chief of American military operations in Vietnam, constantly requests weapons and troops in Viet
Ho Chi Minh Trail- winding trail with lots of alternating paths that supplies the Vietcong
Agent Orange- defoliant that killed forests and later caused cancer
Hawks and Dove- people who supported war or disliked the war (you can probably guess who’s who)
Tet Offensive- Vietcong guerillas launch a crapton of a attacks, a huge military victory for America, but an even bigger political loss
My Lai- massacre of a bunch of villagers, Nate wrote a paper over it.
Wise Men- respected pillars of cold war establishment, said war could not be won
Gene McCarthy- challenges LBJ in democratic primaries, anti-war
Richard Daley- symbol of political machines and backroom, Democratic convention
George Wallace-runs for president, sought support of blue collars, creates independent party (1968)
Silent Majority- the “good” people of America, not the weird and loud hippies
Election of 1968- Nixon-> silent majority and “secret plan” (wins by a hair) and Herbert Humphrey-> peace (dump the hump)
Richard Nixon- wanted to get the southern states (“law and order”), antiwar, stop “pot, porn, protest, permissiveness”
Vietnamization- gradually withdraw troops and advance to peace talks, let S. Viet take more charge
Cambodia- invade to wipe out N. Viet, helped the S. Viet people but caused a crapton of protest
Madman Theory- Nixon hates commies so much he’ll do anything to stop them
Henry Kissinger- national security advisor, global vision of foreign affairs, Nixon’s BFF
Nixon Doctrine- overturns containment, US can’t win everything or keep world peace
Détente- new foreign policy, linkage, be friends rather than fighting
China Card- way of manipulating USSR, since the world is now tripolar
SALT I- Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, both sides pledge not to develop new systems of missiles, slow down cold war
Caesar Chavez- United Farm Workers, nonviolence and religion, boycott grapes!
AIM- American Indian Movement, civil rights for Indians! (Not the poser Asian ones)
Wounded Knee- US was being a drama queen over a Sioux trading post, basically US betrayed the Indians, united a lot of Indian tribes against the US
Stonewall Incident- gay bar! But the homos fought back and got gayness removed from the list of mental disorders. LET THE RAINBOWS FLY.
Betty Friedan- Feminine Mystique, women shouldn’t be in the kitchen! WE WANT A CAREER TOO. MAKE YOUR OWN SANDIWCHES. Equal Pay Act, Civil Rights Act, I think those are self-explanatory
NOW- National Organization for Women, basically decreased birth rate (NO MOAR BABIES), smaller families (less babies obviously means smaller families…), birth control pills, and more sexual freedom (domestic services?:D)
ERA- Equal Rights Ammendment, forbids all discrimination on basis of gender (YEAH FEMINISM)
Roe v. Wade- abortion be legal (poor babies…), Catholics, Protestant, conservatives mad.
Nguyen Van Thieu- S. Viet in power of gov., convinced his regime would not last if the US left.
Paris Peace Treaty- ended the Vietnam War, promised to aid N. Viet to help postwar reconstruction and to send troops if needed.
OPEC- Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, embargoed oil shipments to western countries, Arab states mostly
Ralph Nader- Unsafe at Any Speed- automobile safety, “Nader’s Raiders” investigated consumer and political issues (pollution, abuse, corruption), created public interest research group (lobbied for consumer protection)
Rachel Carson- Silent Spring, warned of dangers of pesticides, pollution, etc. victorious
Barry Commoner- The Closing Circle, modern society invited disaster by trying to “improve on nature”, bad for people and environment, researched radioactive fallout from atomic bombs.
EPA- Environment Protection Agency, required environmental impact statements for public projects for public interest
Richard Nixon- saw self as global leader with a grand strategic vision, conservative Republican, wanted to scale back New Deal stuff, huge presidential power, “imperial presidency”, forced to resign after Watergate
New Federalism- against liberal policies, gives money in block grants to state and local gov., local govs decide how to spend money
Family Assistance Plan- replace welfare system, working and poor families guaranteed $1,600 annual income, must be employed, father encouraged to stay with family
OSHA- Occupational Safety and Health Agency, enforce health and safety standards in the workplace
Stagflation- first recession in decade, unemployment rose even as wages and prices rose as well, stagnant economy and rising prices
US v. Jefferson- rejected proposal that all state systems had to end segreation
Swann v. Charolette-Meeklenburg- busing, balanced ratios and redrawing district lines were acceptable methods of integration
George McGovern- presidential candidate, antiwar, gave Nixon winning, immediate withdraw from Vietnam, abolish draft, income for poor
Enemies List- list of people Nixon didn’t like, given to IRS and other harassers (i.e. telemarketers)
Pentagon Papers/Daniel Ellsberg-leaks military study of Vietnam War, New York Times publishes, spur antiwar sentiment
Plumbers- team organized by Nixon and John Ehrlichman to find and plug “leaks”
Watergate- Democratic National Committee HQ broken into, connections to the White House became evident, connected to Nixon, forced to resign
Woodward/Bernstein- Washington Post reporters, traced burglar’s money to CREEP, continued state investigation
John Dean- Nixon’s White House counsel, Nixon fired after he agrees to cooperate with investigation, claimed Nixon was personally involved in the cover-up
John Sirka- judge for 4 burglars, one talked and linked to Nixon’s highest air
Spiro Agrew- Nixon’s vice president, resigns in 1972 for bribery and tax evasion, replaced by Ford
Sat. Night massacre- Nixon fires special Prosecutor Archibold Cox, attorney general resigns hate mail, impeachment proposals
Gerald Ford- first unelected president, pardons Nixon and continued many of his policies
Fair Campaign Practices Act- enforces financial accountability of campaigns, has been circumvented
Henry Kissinger- Nixon’s secretary of state and National Security Advisor, order and stability greater than principle, tried to maintain presidential power over foreign affairs
War Powers Act-president must consult with Congress before sending troops, limits presidential power over foreign affairs
Salvador Allende- democratically elected president of Chile, Kissinger and CIA encouraged military coup against him, Chilean coalition and CIA pushed out Socialists and killed Allende
Energy Crisis- US had 7% of world’s population but was using 30% of the energy
Détente- failed to end Soviet rivalry, Ford and Soviet leader Brezhnev wanted to extend
Helsinki Summit- Ford, Brezhnev, European leaders agreed to recognize political boundaries dividing E and W Europe
Church Senate Investigations- US senate committee, investigated legality of intelligence gathered by CIA and FBI
WIN- Whip Inflation Now, speech made by Ford, series of proposals for public and private steps to reduce inflation
Jimmy Carter- peanut farmer and gov of GA, elected in 1976, did not offend anyone on controversy, simplicity of directness, Congress didn’t want an imperial presidency so it was hard for him to get anything done
NEA- National Energy Act, deal with energy crisis, tax credits for installation of energy saving equipment, utility conversion to coal and price increase for natural gas
Three Mile Island- failed nuclear power plant, last time US built a nuclear power plant
Chrysler- Americans started buying cheaper Japanese cars, Chrysler stood on the brink of bankruptcy, had to be bailed out
Panama Canal- most Americans believed US should own canal, Carter returned canal to Panama
Nicaragua- dictator Anastasia Somozoa disliked, US supported Somozoa, but was toppled by Sandinistas, Sandinistas rejected US in favor of Commie Cuba
El Salvador- US supported corrupt gov against rebels in fear of spread of commies
SALT II- US recognized China, Russians felt threatened, Brezhnev and Carter limit nuclear launchers and missiles, neither countries agreed to scrap main weapon systems
Camp Dand Accords- Carter invades Anwar Saday and Menachem, 30 year state of war is over, Israel withdraws from Sinai, Carter gives Israel 3 bil
Iran Revolution- Islamic fundamentalists object to Western influence, US supported Shah, but not with military aid, student revolutionaries took 53 American hostages to protect US helping old shah
Afghanistan- Soviet troops ordered in, aimed to subdue any anti-commie Muslim guerillas, Carter condemned invasion Carter Doctrine- US would intervene if USSR threated American interests in Persian Gulf Crisis of Confidence- Vietnam, Central America, Middle East, showed American power, economic problems at home threatened morale Chapter 32
Victor Gruen: an architect seeking ways to reclaim urban downtowns from what he saw as the tyranny of the car, he contrasted the pedestrian-dominated streets with parking lots surrounding malls Evangelicals: comparable to fundamentalists of the 1920's, they wanted more secular values especially in education. They wanted a "school prayer" allowing sanctioned prayer in classrooms and the teaching of "creationism" as an alternative to Darwinism. They created their own private Christian academies. They condemned modernist notions of materialism and thought circumstances, instead of absolute moral precepts, determined ethical behavior Conservatives: the political group who wanted to restore a strong family, traditional religious values, patriotism, and limited government Ronald Reagan: He was an actor before becoming the governor of California, then the president; he wanted a strong national defense and revival of the cold war crusade to reestablish America as the number one power in the world. He became "the Great Communicator" because of his mastery of t.v. and radio. Though, there were some inconsistencies in his leadership -- he stood for strong family values, but was divorced; his less management meant that he was ignorant and uninterested in important matters of policy. Economic Recovery Tax Cut: 25% across the board reduction for all taxpayers in the hopes of reducing the government's size and the stimulus of the economy, opponents said this gave more money to the rich Supply-side Economics: high taxes and government regulation stifled enterprising business and economic expansion, so the key to reviving was a large tax cut. It threatened to reduce revenues and increase present deficits; from economist Arthur Laffer. Similar to the trickle-down theory of the Harding-Coolidge era. James Watt: appointed head to the Interior Department and devoted himself to opening federal lands for private development, including lumber and offshore drilling after Reagan fired the environmentalists on strike which led to a recession; his admin. Continued to oppose environmentalism. SDI: Strategic Defense Initiative; spent money to establish a space-based missile system for "defense" nicknamed Star Wars Terrorists: Reagan sent Marines into Lebanon as part of a Euro-American peacekeeping force and they were dragged into the fighting; terrorists blew up the marines barracks and Reagan withdrew the rest of the marines. The terrorism didn't stop and actually got worse until Reagan sent troops to Libya because al-Qadhafi had links to terrorist, but so did other countries as well, making it hard to find the root of the problem. Grenada: Reagan sent troops to this island whose government was challenged by pro-Castro revolutionaries; we won Boland Amendment: forbid the CIA or any other agency or entity involved in intelligence activities from spending money to support the Contras -- antigovernment forces supported by Reagan in the conflict with Nicaragua, "freedom fighters" battling in the spirit of America's Founding Fathers -- directly or indirectly Iran -- Contra: Iranian-based terrorists held hostages in Lebanon and Reagan couldn't support the Contra, so he paid them ransom, in weapons, and got only one hostage back. Glasnot: Gorbachev's policy of openness about problems in the Soviet Union with the U.S. He took over Russia and wanted to improve relations with U.S. So he implemented this and reduced military commitments, wanted to get rid of all nuclear weapons but we said no, signed the Intermediate Nuclear Force treaty eliminating a class of nukes George Bush: was Reagan's VP so he was the next heir; he appealed to pq45y professionals, white protestants, and middle class who benefited from Reagan START: Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty; after the fall of the Soviet Union, the Russian leaders and U.S. Agreed to sharp reductions in their stockpiles of nuclear weapons Operation Desert Storm: planes from France, Italy, Britain, Saudi Arabia, and the U.S. Began bombing Baghdad and Iraqi bases shattering Saddam's vaunted Republican Guards after Saddam didn't withdraw from Kuwait Robert Bork: rejected from the Conservative Court , a nominee whose opposition to long-established Court policies on privacy an civil rights led even some Republicans to oppose him Clarence Thomas: an outspoken black conservative and former member of the Reagan admin who was debated about by the Senate. In the confirmation hearings, Anita Hill, a fellow Reagan conservative, accused him of sexually harassing her and brought up controversy because of an all-male Judiciary Committee. Thomas won a spot on the court. Bakke v. Regents: college admissions staffs couldn't set fixed quotas when deciding on an applicant S and L Crisis: crisis centering on the nation's savings and loan institutions, they were failing so to increase bank profits, Reagan's admin and congress agreed to cut back federal regulations which didn't matter much to depositors because their money was backed by the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation Gramm-Rudman Act: established a set of steadily increasing limits on federal spending to reach the ultimate Republican goal of a Balanced Budget; this was supposed to force the president and Congress to reach this and if they didn't automatic across-the-board cuts went into effect. This threatened Medicare, which republicans like, so Bush agreed to a package of new taxes and budget cuts which led to republican betrayal and a larger deficit H. Ross Perot: ran for president in 1992; was a computer billionaire who wanted a government run like a business but free of big-business lobbyists and was willing to lower the deficit Bill Clinton: democratic nomination in 1992; was dogged for infidelity, smoking marijuana (but not inhaling), and opposition to the Vietnam War; gained popularity for hammering away Bush for failing to revive the economy, he made himself a new kind of democrat: moderate, willing to work with business, and not a creature of liberal interest groups. Planned Parenthood v. Casey: upheld a woman's constitutional right to an abortion, but it allowed states to place new restrictions on the procedure. It also allowed students to engage in voluntary prayer as well as to form religious clubs meeting after school but religion couldn't have an official status in public school Chapter 33 Terms
Immigration and Control Act of 1986: because of the drastic immigration, congress tightened border security and made a requirement for American employers had the responsibility of certifying their workers al legal residents, but the immigrants wanted their families to come, so congress let them live illegally until they could apply for a visa William Clinton: activist president, he cared too much about public opinion making his supporters doubt if he could make a hard choice Don't ask, don't tell: one of Clinton's first acts, he wanted to eliminate a rule that banned gays from serving in the military, so long as gay soldiers kept it to themselves, they wouldn't have to tell, and could serve Whitewater: critics of Clinton accused him and his wife of of receiving special treatment from this failed real estate venture Yugoslavia: Clinton supported NATO bombing of Serb forces in Yugoslavia because the Serbs, led by Milosevic, were taking over Croatian and Bosnian states. Once the Croatians and Bosnians began winning their territory back, the serbs called for peace Dayton Accords: created separate Croatian, Bosnian, and Serbian nations with 60,000 NATO troops moving into Bosnia to enforce peace Kosovo: Milosevic didn't want to lose Kosovo, another state with a Serbian population, so he sent troops, so Clinton committed to a NATO bombing campaign that hit targets both in Serbia and Kosovo destroying much of Serbia's industrial, military, and transportation infrastructure. Milosevic agreed to a NATO occupation of Kosovo NAFTA: the North American Free Trade Agreement; linked our economy more closely with Canada and Mexico promising grater trade and more jobs Health Care Reform: health care for everyone, government wouldn't be the central agency for reimbursing medical expenses, small businesses disapproved and it didn't get enough votes Contract with America: Newt Gingrich's plan that proposed a balanced budget amendment, tax cuts,, and term limits for all members of congress, broader death penalty and welfare restrictions aimed to reduce teen pregnancy. All were passed except the term limits Madeleine Albright: first female secretary of state appointed by Clinton, Bill and Hilary Clinton "learned that building up women does not diminish men" UAW v. Johnson Controls: Johnson Controls told women that they couldn;t manufacture batteries b/c it harmed the fetus, but board sided with the union, who said that it could harm a man too, and it was the woman's decision which appealed to Mulle v. Oregon, which said that you couldn't deny a woman equal employment opportunity Lewinsky Affair: Clinton's affair with Monica Lewinsky, a 21 year old intern, which led to a trial where he was almost impeached, but the vote was acquitted Impeachment: Starr, Clinton's prosecutor, supported impeachment for perjury, obstruction of justice, and witness tampering. But he lost support from people who questioned his motives and Clinton went to trial but wasn't impeached Nuclear Test Ban Treaty: Senate Republicans refused to ratify it, claiming that it was neither verified nor enforced, and it didn't gain support and wasn't ratified. First time that something of this magnitude wasn't ratified since Versaille Agreement. Galactic Network: an MIT grad wrote a series of memos about a world with computers all across the world connected in order to share data and programs, in 1962, when telephone technology was still primitive ARPANET: a network of 4 house computers in 1969, that shared computer capacity more efficiently and allowed for communication that could survive a nuclear attack. This led to the e-mail. Rodney King: a black man who was arrested and beaten by white cops in 1991, someone took a video for proof and his all white suburban jury concluded that King was guilty; this enraged blacks throughout L.A. and riots began for 3 days, but instead of attacking the white people, rioters attacked Korean, Latinos, etc. exposing the tension between ethnic groups O.J. Simpson: Simpson was accused of murdering his white wife and the man she was having an affair with, the evidence that the prosecution had was faulty and Simpson was found not guilty. This enraged whites and made blacks happy thus furthering the division between the interpretations that different people can have of the same trial. Proposition 209: a black conservative republican, Ward Connerly, wanted to eliminate racial and gender preferences in hiring and college admissions because it was demeaning to minorities. Enrollment for minorities went down Proposition 187: in the hopes of stopping illegal immigration, this denied health, education,a nd welfare benefits to illegal aliens, it had overwhelming support but never went into action because a federal judge ruled unconstitutional the provision denying education to children of illegal aliens.