A.P.E.S. Topic Outline Study Guide (1st Semester Final)
| | |The portions of the outline that we have covered so far are BOLDED. Remember that we have not covered these topics in order. My | |suggestion for studying for the final would be to take this document, expand and space out the concepts that are bold, and | |insert the main ideas pertaining to each. | |I. Earth Systems and Resources (10–15%) | |A. Earth Science Concepts: Geologic time scale; plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanism; seasons; solar intensity and latitude| | | |B. The Atmosphere: Composition; structure; weather and climate; atmospheric circulation and the Coriolis Effect; | |atmosphere–ocean interactions; ENSO | |C. Global Water Resources and Use: Freshwater/saltwater; ocean circulation; agricultural, industrial, and domestic use; surface| |and groundwater issues; global problems; conservation | |D. Soil and Soil Dynamics: Rock cycle; formation; composition; physical and chemical properties; main soil types; erosion and | |other soil problems; soil conservation | | | |II. The Living World (10–15%) | |A. Ecosystem Structure: Biological populations and communities; ecological niches; interactions among species; keystone | |species; species diversity and edge effects; major terrestrial and aquatic biomes | |B. Energy Flow: Photosynthesis and cellular respiration; food webs and trophic levels; ecological pyramids | |C. Ecosystem Diversity: Biodiversity; natural selection; evolution; ecosystem services | |D. Natural Ecosystem Change: Climate shifts; species movement; ecological succession | |E. Natural Biogeochemical Cycles: Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, water, conservation of matter | | | |III. Population (10–15%) | |A. Population Biology Concepts: Population ecology; carrying capacity; reproductive strategies; survivorship | | B. Human Population | |1. Human population dynamics: Historical population sizes; distribution; fertility rates; growth rates and doubling times; | |demographic transition; age-structure diagrams | |2. Population size: Strategies for sustainability; case studies; national policies | |3. Impacts of population growth: Hunger; disease; economic effects; resource use; habitat destruction | | | |IV....
Please join StudyMode to read the full document