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Ap Us History Study Notes

By rachelann6 Dec 26, 2012 1480 Words
Study Guide Chapter 20-Progressivism
Progressive Beliefs
Gilded Age| Progressivism|
Gospel of Wealth * Rich=good=heaven * Poor=bad=sinner=hell * Wealth= an outward sign of wealth * You are a failure if you don’t have wealthHuman Existence=Atomist * You are nothing but a don’t * Random, chaotic mess * Solitary existence| Social Gospel * Interconnectedness * Christian notion of love * Brotherly love, uplifting, “together” * Connected as peopleHuman Existence= Connection * People connected together * Pulling up and down * Make land clean * Reform to help neighbor= pro-reform| Social Darwinism * Survival of the fittest * Natural law reigns for government, social economic| Reform Darwinism * Because church attendance dropped off * Not living in nature so can’t use natural law * Protection of weak, not destruction * Justice, morality, charityAltruism= capable of committing selfless acts, only possible with humans=not in nature| Liberty of Contract * Prevent reform * Private business owner cannot be told what to do| Legal Pragmatism * Shift to reform * Balance=principle + common good * Principle=idealist , protect wildlife, right to bear arms * Common good=realist, electricity, people getting shot * Shift for between|

Era=1910-19
* Tended to be educated, middleclass, women
* Had downtime
* Idea that society being unfair
* Symbolizes what America could have been
Hull House
* Lead by Jane Addams
* Nature vs. nurture= nurture
* Based on immigrants=responsibility to teach them the new ways of life * Early community centers= Hull House(1st)
* Social gospel belief that it is OUR city
Rise of Professions
* Profession now= need degree, license
* Created special requirements to do a job
* Ex=AOA/Barr Association set standard
* Positive standard
* Protects the consumer
Muckrakers
* Journalists that targeted big businesses
* Job of the media to watch for common good
* Realize that people of power will corrupt good
* Expose bad and corruption
* Ex. Jungle Claire
* Says Spanish/American war caused more death by disease than by bullets * Pure Food/Drug Act= regulates food
* Ida Claire=showed corruption of Rockefeller oil
Social Gospel
* Interconnectedness
* Christian notion of love
* Brotherly love, uplifting, together
* Pro-reform= help neighbor
* Caused by muckrakers moralistic tone= outrage of society and economic injustice and lead to religious reform * Religion with reform=moral component to redeem lives of even least favored people Salvation Army

* Salvation Army=Christian welfare organization
* Like a military, with officers
* Materials + service to urban poor
* Started by Father John Ryan left in parish to serve in troubled cities * Expanding scope of catholic, social welfare groups
* Rich man helps out poor man
* Belief of humanitarian evolution of social fabric
Woman+ Suffrage
* Right to vote 19th Amendment 1920
* 60s= reproductive rights +employment rights
Initiative + Referendum and Direct primers + recall
* Many progressives turned to state government for reform * Scorn on state legislature = incompetent, corrupt party bosses * Wanted to increase power of the electorate
* Initiative= reformers allowed to avoid state legislature by submitting new legislation directly to voters in general elections * Referendum= provided a method by which actions of the legislature could be returned to the electorate for approval. * Legislative action directly to people for approval

* 1928 20 states had
* Limit power of the party + improve quality of the officials * Direct primaries= attempt to take the selection of candidates away from bosses and give it to the people * People, not bosses choose candidates

* In south= an effort to limit black voting, to create primary voting * Recall= gave voters right to remove a public office official from office at a special election * Could be given when a sufficient number of citizens signed a petition * Limits the political machines

* 17th Amendment= senators appointed by popular vote (vote of the people) and not elected by state legislature because caused corruption Triangle Shirtwaist fire
* 1911 New York
* Terrible fire in Triangle Shirt Company
* 146 workers died
* Many trapped inside because management emergency exits to prevent malingering * State commission delivered report calling for reform in labor conditions * Responding to intense women’s groups and labor unions * Support from and reforms lead by Tammany Democrats

* Robert f. Wagner + Alfred E. Smith
* Created labor laws that imposed regulations on factory owners and established mechanism African American Reform
* Progressive era= challenges to existing norms
* AAs faced legal, social, economic obstacles in challenging their oppressed status and seeking reforms * Brooker T Washington’s beliefs were embraced
* =self improvement instead of long-term social change * Supported black colleges
* win over white population by adapting middle class values * W.E.B. Du Bois=goals to eliminate prejudice and injustice * immediate civil rights and professional education
* argued talented percentage in blacks
* The souls of black people = attack of Washington, saying he encouraged whites to continue segregation * Said talented blacks should demand university education, should aspire to be professionals * Fight for civil rights not wait to be granted

* Launched Niagara Movement
* Formed national association for the advancement of colored people (NAACP) * Used federal lawsuits in pursuit of equal rights
* Guinn v. United States= grandfather clause found unconstitutional * Buchanan v. Worley= court outlawed Kentucky law of requiring residential segregation * Leading black organization

* Issue of lynching= advocate law to make it illegal
Temperance
* Elimination of alcohol to restore societal order
* Idea that drunkenness spawned violence
* Wives wanted temperance to reform behavior + improve life, stop family probs * Employers thought alcohol impeded efficiency
* Saloons=centrals of political machine institution
* 1873 Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) Frances Willard joined Anti-Saloon League * Pressed legislation for the abolition of salons and prohibition of manufacturing and sale of alcohol * Entry into World War pushed for prohibition+ opposition to alcohol by immigrants, working class voters, rural fundamentalists= Amendment 18 * 1929, prohibited alcohol

Nativism
* Reformers thought that immigrants created social problems * Some wanted to help assimilate others wanted to limit flow of new immigrants * Immigrants polluting nation’s racial stock
* Eugenics movement= science of altering the reproductive process to produce new hybrids or breeds, science of improving population by controlling breeding * Racial science
* Used to define some races better than others, grade races on characteristics to determine “fitness” in society * Want sterilization of human race, some people seen unfit, done against “retarded” * Human inequalities= hereditary

* Nazis=culmination of racial science
* Ex. Non-anglo E. Europeans and Asians
* Carnegie Foundation funded = turning eugenics in a method to alter human reproduction * Madison Grant, Passing of the Great race = biggest nativist, advocated protecting purity of anglo-saxon * Tied together eugenics and nativism

* Congress’s Dillingham Report= new immigrants less assimilable than other groups * Restrictions should be based on nationality for immigration * Thought to be solution against urban crowding, unemployment, strained social services + unrest Socialism

* Socialism party grew
* Eugene Debs=leader
* Strong ideas with Germans, Jews, and protestant farmers * Socialists= need for basic structural changes in economy, disagreed on extent +tactics * Moderates= nationalizing only major industries, use electoral politics * Radicals=Industrial workers of the world (IWW, wobblies)\ * Powerful and popular

* Too many opinions
Square Deal
* Society unfair wanted equality
* Create more fair economic system
* Use of arbitration= if a problem between owner and employer, 3rd unaffiliated party makes decision * Interstate commerce act
* Hepburn Act=restore regulatory authority to govt
* Pure food and drug act
Taft Progressive Record
* William Howard Taft= lowered tariff rates hardly and raised some * People resented passivity and inaction
* Payne-Aldrich Tariff
* Won election in 1908
Teddy Roosevelt’s Progressive Record
* Saw federal government as mediator of the public good
* Not opposed to industrial combinations but realized for the potential abuse of power * Department of commerce and labor created to publicly investigate corporations * Regulated trusts
* Used Sherman Antitrust act to break up northern securities company (monopoly over RRS in NW) * Saw gov’t as impartial regulator for labor
* Sided with United Mines workers in 1902 strike
* Square Deal
* Pure food and drug act 1906
* Favored 8 hour work day, workmen’s compensation, inheritance, income taxes * Hapburn railroad regulation 1906= increase fed power to oversee rates * Restored gov’t regulatory power

* Allowed gov’t to regulate railroads
Wilson’s Progressive Record
* Progressive reform
* Cut down tariffs= Underwood- Simmons Tariff
* In order to introduce competition into market and breakup trusts * Made up for revenues from less tariffs with graduated income tax * New freedom= business was unjust and wanted to destroy, not regulate monopoly (Roosevelt) * Limit monopolies

* Good for country= morally right
* Federal Reserve Act 1913
* Made Regional fed banks made up of individual banks= issued loans at discount rate * Issued Fed Reserve notes, backed by govt
* Shifted funds to meet credit demands of troubled areas + support banks * Govt regulate free market
* Deal with monopoly
* Strengthen ability of govt to break up trusts
* Federal Trade Commission Act
* Clay Antitrust Act
* Both created regulatory agency that would help businesses determine if actions acceptable to govt * Could investigate behavior
Payne Aldrich tariff
* By Taft
* Reduced tariffs barely at all and even raced in some areas * People resented passivity
* Refused to overcome opposition of Republican Old Gaurd Election of 1912
* Taft= support of conservative Republicans
* Roosevelt=support of progressives
* Convention Republican Nat’l Committee gave nomination to Taft * Roosevelt left republicans established own progressive Party = Bull moose Party * Contest between conservatives vs. reformers, between branches of progressivism * Democrats choose Wilson

* Taft resigned, Roosevelt shot forced to sidelines, Wilson won

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