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Ap Us History Important Terms

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p us history master terms
Unit I Terms

Bacon’s Rebellion-1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.                                      

John Winthrop-He became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, and served in that capacity from 1630 through 1649. A Puritan with strong religious beliefs. He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group of skillful leaders. He helped organize the New England Confederation in 1643 and served as its first president. He believed in the creation of a City on a Hill and that they would be an example to the world.

Separatists- Non-separatists (which included the Puritans) believed that the Church of England could be purified through reforms. Separatists (which included the Pilgrims) believed that the Church of England could not be reformed and that it was corrupt so started their own congregations. 

Roger Williams-Rhode Island. He left the Massachusetts colony and purchased the land from a neighboring Indian tribe to found the colony of Rhode Island. Rhode Island was the only colony at that time to offer complete religious freedom. He was an antinomian. He was exiled from Massachusetts because of his beliefs. He believed you couldn’t take land from Native Americans because they could be saved, Anglican Church is too corrupt, separation of church and state and religious toleration, you don’t have to listen to the bible or minister if you are already predetermined. Founder of Rhode Island.

Anne Hutchinson-She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomians) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639. She allied with merchants. Said the bible was wrong.                                                                                                                             "Visible saints"- - people who were godly Christians and who went to heaven when they died. Puritans believed that they were the saints of the world. 

Half-Way Covenant- The Half-way Covenant applied to those members of the Puritan colonies who were the children of church members, but who hadn’t achieved grace themselves. The covenant allowed them to participate in some church affairs.                                            

Dominion of New England- 1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros. An example that Britain was beginning to lose control of New England.         

Penn's "Holy Experiment'- William Penn’s term for the government of Pennsylvania, which was supposed to serve everyone and provide freedom for all. He was a Quaker. He was most likely gay so he wasn’t accepted by puritans but in Pennsylvania he could be free and safe because they believed that they are the same as everyone else.                                                          

Nathaniel Bacon- Virginian planter who organized a militia of 500, attacked and killed Indians because some tribes caused planters problems. Then he marched the militia into Jamestown and burned it.

House of Burgesses-1619 - The Virginia House of Burgesses formed the first legislative body in colonial America. Later other colonies would adopt houses of burgesses.                                                                                                                                                Indentured servants- People who could not afford passage to the colonies could become indentured servants. Another person would pay their passage, and in exchange, the indentured servant would serve that person for a set length of time (usually seven years) and then would be free. 

Headright- Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists                         

"middle passage" - passage from the African west coast to the West Indies                  

Enlightenment-A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God. It is believed that it influenced the American Revolution.

Great Awakening- Puritanism had declined by the 1730s, and people were upset about the decline in religious piety. The Great Awakening was a sudden outbreak of religious fervor that swept through the colonies. One of the first events to unify the colonies. It believed in individualism and New Birth. Believed to influence American Revolution.

George Whitefield- George Whitefield, an Anglican minister, led numerous revivals and preached a theology “scaled down to the comprehension of twelve-year-olds.” While not denying the doctrine of predestination, he preached a God responsive to good intentions. He believed in the concept of New Birth.  

Jonathan Edwards- Jonathan Edwards was the most famous native-born revivalist. In 1727 he “inherited” his grandfather’s pulpit in Northampton, Massachusetts, and dramatized hell’s fire and brimstone from the pulpit. Eventually in 1749 his parishioners voted to dismiss him. By the 1750s, the Great Awakening, the first truly national event in American history, had run its course. Although it had caused divisions, it also fostered religious toleration. His most famous work is “Sinners”. He believed one could become morally perfect.                 

Mercantilism-Navigation Acts- the most important legislature that Britain passed on colonies. Says that all goods shipped on vessels built in UK, Raw material to UK only in UK ships, no manufacturing in colonies, 75% UK crews, all goods to other countries stop in UK for unloading.

Congregationalism- Puritan system. Says that church is center of town and the meeting house. Congregation elects minister.                    

Pilgrims - Mayflower Compact- 1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony. It said that all people must adhere to majority rule, allegiance to king and church is the center of their town. 

Triangle Trade- The backbone of New England’s economy during the colonial period. Ships from New England sailed first to Africa, exchanging New England rum for slaves. The slaves were shipped from Africa to the Caribbean (this was known as the Middle Passage, when many slaves died on the ships). In the Caribbean, the slaves were traded for sugar and molasses. Then the ships returned to New England, where the molasses were used to make rum.

Great Migration- Many Puritans emigrated from England to America in the 1630s and 1640s. During this time, the population of the Massachusetts Bay colony grew to ten times its earlier population. 

King Philip's War- 1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.               

Covenant of Grace- Puritan teachings emphasized the biblical covenants: God’s covenants with Adam and with Noah, the covenant of grace between God and man through Christ. 

John Smith-Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.           

Virginia Company-Virginia was formed by the Virginia Company as a profit-earning venture. Starvation was the major problem; about 90% of the colonists died the first year, many of the survivors left, and the company had trouble attracting new colonists. They offered private land ownership in the colony to attract settlers, but the Virginia Company eventually went bankrupt and the colony went to the crown. Virginia did not become a successful colony until the colonists started raising and exporting tobacco.  William Berkeley- the royal governor, Sir William Berkeley of Virginia. He was forced by Bacon to legitimize his power in order to take control of Jamestown and fight against Indians.                                                                               

"seasoning time"- period of time when new colonists became accustomed to the weather and hygiene conditions in the colony

Toleration Act of 1649- 1649 - Ordered by Lord Baltimore after a Protestant was made governor of Maryland at the demand of the colony's large Protestant population. The act guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians. Maryland was unique in that it became a refuge for Catholic immigrants, and although Catholics were a minority in Maryland their rights were protected

Jacob Leisler- In New York in 1689, Jacob Leisler seized control of the government for two years before being sent to the gallows. But for two decades struggles continued between those who shared Leisler’s dislike of English rule and those who had opposed his takeover. He took control of New York. He was arrested for denying English troops to enter key forts. He arrested many new Yorkers for questioning his authority.  

John Peter Zenger- Another political problem occurred when Governor William Cosby made a claim for back salary and was opposed by forces led by Lewis Morris. Morrisites established a weekly journal which was eventually closed down and which led to the trial for seditious libel of its editor, John Peter Zenger.

Deism- The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life. 

Albany Plan of Union- During the French and Indian War, Franklin wrote this proposal for a unified colonial government, which would operate under the authority of the British government. Gives the arousal of William Pitt. The first time the colonies unite.

Great War for Empire- increased tensions between France and Britain. France puts up forts around their land. Britain is defeated in Ohio because they have really bad Generals and Native Americans are allied with France, But Irukoy Indians ally with Britain. It is the cause of the first meeting between all 13 colonies. William Pitt was appointed general and helped defeat the French.     

Regulator Movement- was the attempt to regulate taxes in North Carolina where citizens took up arms against corrupt colonial officials. While unsuccessful, some historians consider it a catalyst to the American Revolutionary War. 

Stono Rebellion in NY- the rebellion against slavery in New York. One of the earliest known organized rebellions in the present United States, it was led by native Africans who were Catholic and the rebellion was suppressed.        

Treaty of Paris (1763)- 1763 the Treaty of Paris ended hostilities and gave England dominance in North America. France is out of New World.

North Carolina Regulators- Western frontiersmen who in 1768 rebelled in protest against the high taxes imposed by the Eastern colonial government of North Carolina, and whose organization was crushed by military force by Governor Tryon in 1771. In South Carolina, groups of vigilantes who organized to fight outlaw bands along the Western frontier in 1767-1769, and who disbanded when regular courts were established in those areas.                                                                                                       

Sugar Act (1764)- The passage of the Sugar Act (1764), which placed tariffs on sugar, coffee, wines, and other imported products, was denounced by the colonists as taxation without representation. Also in 1764, the government in London restricted the printing, although not the use of, paper money in the colonies.

"Salutary neglect"- colonists resorted to smuggling and bribery to bypass Parliamentary regulations. Mercantilistic laws merely steered American economy toward England, and the colonies enjoyed almost continuous prosperity from 1650 until the Revolution.

Proclamation of 1763- Proclamation of 1763. No settlers were to cross the Appalachian divide, only licensed traders could do business in that area, and the purchase of Indian land was outlawed. The purpose of the proclamation was to organize Great Britain's new North American empire and to stabilize relations with Native North Americans through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier.

Tea Act 1773- The final crisis in the ongoing conflict over imperial control surfaced in 1773 when Parliament, in attempting to save the corrupt and inefficient British East India Company from bankruptcy, gave the company a monopoly on colonial tea trade. Although this action reduced the price of tea (middlemen were eliminated), Americans regarded it as a sly attempt to trap them into paying the tea tax. In Boston the situation deteriorated as Samuel Adams and other propagandists inflamed the public to a point that on December 16, 1773, the Boston Tea Party occurred.

Coercive Acts 1774- All of these names refer to the same acts, passed in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party, and which included the Boston Port Act, which shut down Boston Harbor; the Massachusetts Government Act, which disbanded the Boston Assembly (but it soon reinstated itself); the Quartering Act, which required the colony to provide provisions for British soldiers; and the Administration of Justice Act, which removed the power of colonial courts to arrest royal officers.

Albany Plan-Stamp Act Congress 1765- taxed many kinds of printed matter, including newspapers, legal documents, and licenses. Was direct taxing by eng. An intercolonial Stamp Act Congress passed resolutions of protest, and relations were further strained as colonists burned the stamps, boycotted British goods, and the Sons of Liberty resorted to some violence. Parliament responded by repealing the Stamp Act (1766).

Writs of Assistance- Search warrants issued by the British government. They allowed officials to search houses and ships for smuggled goods, and to enlist colonials to help them search. The writs could be used anywhere, anytime, as often as desired. The officials did not need to prove that there was reasonable cause to believe that the person subject to the search had committed a crime or might have possession of contraband before getting a writ or searching a house. The writs were protested by the colonies.       

Declaratory Act 1766-  On the same day Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, it passed a Declaratory Act establishing its right to enact any colonial legislation it deemed proper. The Declaratory Act highlighted the degree to which British and Americans had drifted apart on the concepts of representation, constitution, and sovereignty.

Townshend Acts 1767- Facing the possibility of a deficit budget, Parliament passed the Townshend Acts (1767) which placed new taxes on glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea. Colonists immediately began boycotting British imports and influential Americans began questioning the basis of the British colonial system. The spectrum of debate ranged from the moderate views of John Dickinson to the radical opinions of Samuel Adams.                    

Boston Massacre 1770- On March 5, 1770, idlers tossed snowballs at Redcoats guarding the Boston Custom House, and panicking soldiers fired their muskets into the crowd, killing five. Although radicals like Samuel Adams played up the incident, cooler heads prevailed and a post-massacre truce settled over British America.

Circular Letter- a letter sent by Sam Adams to colonies that says taxing is unconstitutional.   

Virtual - Actual Representation- Virtual representation means that a representative is not elected by his constituents, but he resembles them in his political beliefs and goals. Actual representation mean that a representative is elected by his constituents. The colonies only had virtual representation in the British government. 

1st-2nd Continental Congress- The First Continental Congress met to discuss their concerns over Parliament's dissolutions of the New York (for refusing to pay to quarter troops), Massachusetts (for the Boston Tea Party), and Virginia Assemblies. The First Continental Congress rejected the plan for a unified colonial government, stated grievances against the crown called the Declaration of Rights, resolved to prepare militias, and created the Continental Association to enforce a new non-importation agreement through Committees of Vigilence. In response, in February, 1775, Parliament declared the colonies to be in rebellion. It met in 1776 and drafted and signed the Declaration of Independence, which justified the Revolutionary War and declared that the colonies should be independent of Britain.

Sam Adams- A Massachusetts politician who was a radical fighter for colonial independence. Helped organize the Sons of Liberty and the Non-Importation Commission, which protested the Townshend Acts, and is believed to have lead the Boston Tea Party. He served in the Continental Congress throughout the Revolution, and served as Governor of Massachusetts from 1794-1797.

John Dickenson- Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies, Dickinson opposed the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776, refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.

Sons of Liberty- A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.  

Unit II Terms 
Olive Branch Petition- a petition sent by John Dickinson during the Second Continental Congress to George III of Britain to try and reconcile their feuds. It fails to have any effect because by the time the petition arrives in Britain George III knows about Bunker’s Hill and declares Massachusetts in open rebellion so he cuts off all imports to colonies, which will cause major economic problems.

Common Sense- a testament written by Tomas Paine to challenge the authority of the British government and the royal monarchy. He writes it to try and create a greater awareness that colonist need independence. It is simple and easy to read. Called for colonists to realize their mistreatment and push for independence from England. Attacked King George III and the monarchy itself. As a result, Continental Congress unleashed privateers against British commerce, open American ports, established state governments.

Loyalists- colonists that fight for the British during the Revolution. They included Canadian elites in fear of Americans spreading into their land, some native Americans, and were influenced by the Whigs. They wanted to remain loyal to the British king.

Yorktown (1781)- The Battle of Yorktown. It is the decisive battle that ends the Revolutionary War. It forced the British to surrender and negotiate some sort of agreement between America. It leads to the Treaty of Paris 1783 which acknowledged the colonies as independent.

Thomas Paine- author of Common Sense. He wanted to create more awareness to colonists about what Britain was doing. He wanted to inspire colonists to do something about their independence.                                                 

Declaration of Independence- the statement adopted on July 4th that declared that the colonies were no longer part of Britain. Sharply separated Loyalists from Patriots and helped to start the American Revolution by allowing England to hear of the colonists disagreements with British authority.  

Franco-American Alliance-Saratoga (1778)- an alliance formed between France and the United States. France agrees to help America militarily and economically to defeat and weaken Britain.                                     

Articles of Confederation (1781)- The first form of federal government. It had limited national power. It requires a unanimous vote from all colonies to ratify a law, donations instead of taxes, inadequate central government. Gave states independence and more power over national government (able to form treaties, control foreign policy, coin money).  Its successes were the Land ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance 1787.                        

Peace of Paris (1783)- Treaty between America and Britain. It recognizes America’s independence. It required all British troops to be evacuated as long as loyalists were paid; all land east of Mississippi went to America, fishing rights of grand banks.                         

Saratoga-Yorktown- two important and decisive battles for America. They are both victories for America.  
Republican Motherhood- Came from US War of Independence. Concept that women should educate themselves in the principles of liberty, independence, and democracy so as to inculcate the coming generation with these republican values. This was one sign that women were becoming more respected as intellectually capable.   

Shays' Rebellion 1786- Daniel Shay (Revolutionary War veteran) gathered farmers and marched to courthouse because of trade issues and taxes, preventing state Supreme Court from meeting. State sent troops to fight them and suppressed them. Shay and his rebellion were arrested.            

Land Ordinance of 1785 -Provided for surveying western territories into 6 square mile townships before sale at auction. Compromise between south’s sale to individuals and NE’s sale to groups or companies. 1 section for education and schooling.          

Imposts -Section 8 of the Constitution. Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defense and general Welfare of the US. But all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the US.                        

Annapolis Convention 17855 -states met “to discuss common problems of commerce”. All talk, no action. Decided not to make any changes due to lack of reps from other states, so Hamilton suggested they meet in Philadelphia to “fix” the Articles of Confederation.  

3/5 Compromise-North argued slaves should be counted for federal taxation. South disagreed but still wanted slaves counted as people to determine number in House of Representatives. Eventually Every slave counted as 3/5 of a person.      

1808 Compromise- Allowed the slave trade to continue, but placed a date-certain on its survival. Congress eventually passed a law outlawing the slave trade that became effective on January 1, 1808.  

Virginia Plan- a political plan that wanted 2 houses; upper and lower. A strong central government and representation that is proportional to population.                        
New Jersey Plan- a political plan that wanted equal representation in every state regardless of population.  
Northwest Ordinance of 1787- Establishes government for West. First governed by governor and 3 judges, then territory with legislature, and then state. Determines process of dividing territory and writing territory constitution. Banded by Ohio & Mississippi Rivers and Great Lakes. Same rights as original 13 states. Prohibited slavery.                        

Great Compromise- Delegates at Great Convention decided to have bicameral legislature: Lower House- House of Representatives dependent on population (Virginia Plan – favored by larger states) and Upper House- Senate, with equal number of representatives per state (2 per state) (New Jersey Plan – small states). All revenue bills begin in house. Any bill that says it will take money will begin in house of representatives because they are closer to the people.                                                                                                               

The Federalists Papers 1788- by Madison, Jay and Hamilton. To convince voters in Virginia and New York that constitution was worth a chance. Had little impact but finally  New York and Virginia supported it.          

Checks and balances- Phrase to describe the separation of powers/branches of government. By dividing powers between legislature, executive (President), and judiciary, no one branch can be too powerful. Each one can “check” the other’s actions.                                                                                                 Antifederalists -People against federalists in 1787. Disagreed with the Constitution because they believed people's rights were being taken away without a Bill of Rights. Appealed to “common man” as they didn’t want an elected aristocracy. Gave in a bit when promised the Bill of Rights, which they wanted because the British constitution is unwritten so no one can claim any rights.             

Bill of Rights 1791- By Madison (since he wrote the Constitution too). First 10 amendments of Constitution. Added in 1791. Guarantees civil liberties like freedom of speech, free press, and freedom of religion, etc. written to satisfy the needs of states fearful of losing their rights (anti-federalists.

Hamilton's Economic Plans 1792-94- Funding and Assumption. (Funding- funding the national debt. 'Spend your way out of debt' by funding the old debt. Government taxes and uses bonds (citizens lend government money) - people who gave money will pay taxes, will want government to succeed so they get their money back.) (Assumption- the central government takes (assumes) all of the state debts.) Funding and assumption later lead to the formation of political parties.

Whiskey Rebellion 1795- 1st major challenge to federal authority. Small rebellion that began in Southwestern Pennsylvania in 1794. Challenge to the national governments unjust use of an excise tax on whiskey. Washington crushed the rebellion with excessive force, proving the strength of the national governments power in its military. Shows that constitution is supreme law and that there are severe limits to what people can do to oppose government.

Election of 1796- President-John Adams (Federalist). Vice President-Thomas Jefferson (Republican).        

Jay Treaty - Treaty which offered little concessions from Britain to U.S. and greatly disturbed the Jeffersonians. Jay was able to get Britain to say they would evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil and pay damages for recent seizures of American ships. British, however, would not promise to leave American ships alone in the future, and they decided that the Americans still owed British merchants for pre-Revolutionary war debts. Because of this, many Southerners rioted. Spain heard about the Americans making a treaty with Britain, which led to Pinckney's Treaty.

Pinckney Treaty- Prompted by Jay Treaty. Granted the US the free navigation of the Mississippi River (helped America to have unexpected diplomatic success) and the right of deposit at New Orleans that western Americans urgently needed.  

Farewell Address- Written by Hamilton. Vigorous condemnation of parties (parties are bad for republic, use republicans against themselves). No foreign entanglements (because need to strengthen ourselves). Washington attacked by Jefferson and never speaks to each other again.            

Edmund Genet- French representative sent to US to seek support for France. French Revolution had much support in America; American democratic ideals seemed to be spreading. Genet illegally commissioned privateers, angering Washington (causing Genet Affair). It leads to Washington passing the Proclamation of Neutrality that destroys relationship between France and America because they previously had a Franco-American Alliance.  

XYZ Affair 1797- American delegates meet with 3 French delegates (XYZ) to find a way to stop the French from attacking American ships. Foreign minister Talleyrand sent delegates to demand for bribes to make a deal. Americans refused. Talks broke up. Americans are mad. War fervor grows.                

Alien and Sedition Acts 1798 -By Congress (which is now full of federalists). Says no person can criticize government. They also included the Naturalization Act, which said that immigrants had to live here for 14 years before they could be citizens. The Alien Enemies Act gave the president the power to kick immigrants out of the country during the time of a declared war. The Sedition Act first made it a crime "to impede the operation of any law" or to attempt to instigate a riot or insurrection; the act also made it illegal to publish, or even to utter, any "false, scandalous and malicious" criticism of high government officials.  

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions 1799- by Madison (Virginia) and Jefferson (Kentucky) that claimed that individual states could decide whether a law was constitutional or not, since states came before the constitution. Reaction to the Alien and Sedition Acts.                        

Revolution of 1800--Bloodless Revolution- Adams (Federalist; with Pinckney as VP) vs. Jefferson (Republican; with Burr as VP). Hamilton attempted to alter results and succeeded when people nominated Jefferson and Burr for president. Jefferson and Burr tied with 73 electoral votes, so the House of Representatives (which was still all federalist) had to pick which republican would run the country. Finally, Hamilton put his support behind Jefferson (because he hated Burr), so Jefferson became president.                

Burr Conspiracy 1804- Tensions between Jefferson and his VP, Burr, had grown exponentially. Burr entered a conspiracy in which he tried to rally support of a forceful secession of the western states. At the last minute, his general Wilkinson betrayed him to Jefferson and he was put on trial for high treason. Jefferson tried his best to get him convicted, but Chief Justice Marshall (one of the Midnight Judges who hated Jefferson) made sure Burr was found not guilty. The whole thing was a huge blow to Jefferson’s prestige.  

non-intercourse Act 1809- Formally reopened trade with all nations except France and UK. Replacement of the Embargo Act. Made by the Republican Congress in an attempt to make England and France stop harassing the American ships and recognize the neutrality of America.  

Impressments- supplies from producers and appropriating slaves for work on fortifications. One of the major factors leading to the War of 1812.                       

Lewis and Clark- Along with Sacagawea, explored the far west. Besides locating several passes across the Rockies, they established friendly relations with a many great Indian tribes and brought back a wealth of data about the country and its resources. The journals kept by members of the group were published and, along with their accurate maps, became major sources for scientists, students, and future explorers.

Chesapeake Leopard Affair 1807- The Chesapeake was an American ship that had just left port when the British ship the Leopard ordered it to pull over. The Chesapeake did so. A British officer boarded and demanded that three American and one British sailor be handed over. The Chesapeake refused, so the Leopard opened fire, killing three. This event was the zenith of naval conflict between the US and Europe. This is the most famous example of impressment, in which the British seized American sailors and forced them to serve on British ships. Jefferson was forced to respond with the Embargo Act of 1808.                        

Embargo Act, 1808 - of the Chesapeake Leopard affair. Jefferson declared that no American ship could leave its port (and thus, no trade with anyone). An outrage to merchants, and a disaster for Jefferson. Would later lead to the establishment of the Non Intercourse Act that traded with all except for Britain and France.    

Macon Bill 1810- superseded the Non-Intercourse Act. Macon Bill stated that if either Britain or France agreed to observe the neutrality of the United States, the US would resume trading with that country and continue the embargo on the other. The French soon agreed to American demands.                        

Tecumseh- Native American leader of the Shawnee and a large tribal confederacy that opposed the US during Tecumseh's War and the War of 1812. Grew up in the Ohio country during the American Revolutionary War and the Northwest Indian War where he was constantly exposed to warfare. 

War Hawks- A coterie of about twenty Democratic Republicans who persuaded Congress into supporting a declaration of war against Britain. These young, vocal members from the South and the western U.S. were voted into the House during mid-term congressional elections in 1810. They were united by outrage regarding the British practice of impressment (or abduction) of American sailors, and the British Orders in Council which were crippling the American economy.                                                                                             

Treaty of Ghent 1814- Agreement negotiated in Ghent, Belgium, by Great Britain and US to end the War of 1812. Peace was established on the status quo ante bellum. It included the concession to the United States of all British territory in the American Northwest, which enabled American expansion.                        

Hartford Convention 1815- Secret meeting of Federalist Party delegates from New England states who opposed the War of 1812. Adopted a strong states'-rights position in opposition to the mercantile policies of President James Madison and the Embargo Act and other measures that prohibited trade with Britain and France. News of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent on Dec. 24, 1814, which ended the war, discredited the nascent separatist movement at the convention and weakened Federalist influence.                        

Rush-Bagot Agreement 1817- Mutual disarmament treaty. In notes exchanged between British minister Charles Bagot and Acting Secretary of State Richard Rush, America and Britain pledged to maintain no more than one ship each on Lakes Champlain and Ontario, and only two on the remaining Great Lakes. This accord neither completely nor immediately disarmed the lakes, nor did it address land forces; but it did constitute the first qualitative disarmament treaty in history. No more warships were introduced, the Anglo-American “era of good feelings” continued, and tensions eased along the border. Responding to war threats in 1940, both Canada and the United States modified Rush-Bagot to permit naval construction and training. 

Transcontinental Treaty 1819- Agreement made during the administration of President James Monroe and settled long-standing disputes between the United States and Spain. Madrid ceded East Florida to the Americans, while Washington surrendered its claims to Texas and agreed to assume payment of American financial claims against the Spanish up to $5 million. The treaty established definitive western boundaries for the Louisiana Purchase, following the Sabine, Red, and Arkansas Rivers to the 42nd parallel, and running along that line to the Pacific. The United States also secured Spanish claims to Oregon.      

Monroe Doctrine 1823- By President Monroe. Said: 1.) The Western Hemisphere was no longer open for colonization. 2.) The political system of the Americas was different from Europe. 3.) The US would regard any interference in Western hemispheric affairs as a threat to its security. 4.) The US would refrain from participation in European wars and would not disturb existing colonies in the Western Hemisphere.

Unit III Terms
Missouri Compromise­- The Missouri Territory applied for statehood in 1819. Senate membership was evenly divided between Slave states and Free states. Missouri wanted to be a Slave state which would unbalance the Senate. Representative Tallmadge of New York fixes this issue with an amendment to a bill which would prohibit slavery in Missouri. South got angry. Massachusetts Territory applied for admission as state of Maine (Free). House Speaker Henry Clay 1) Maine =Free, Missouri=Slave 2) No slavery in rest of Louisiana Territory below southern boundary of Missouri (latitude 36°30’). These debates in Congress showed the deep sectional division in the country.           

Monroe Doctrine (1823)-  said that further efforts by European governments to colonize land or interfere with states in the Americas would be viewed by the United States of America as acts of aggression requiring US intervention. The Monroe Doctrine asserted that the Western Hemisphere was not to be further colonized by European countries, and that the United States would not interfere with existing European colonies nor in the internal concerns of European countries. British and American leaders feared that the new European governments would try to take back the former New World Colonies. (Brits wanted to trade with L. America and America didn’t want to compete for power in the American hemisphere) December 2, 1823- President Monroe: 1) The American hemisphere was ‘henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers’” 2) It was U.S. policy to abstain from European wars

3) The U.S. would construe any attempt at European colonization in the New World as an ‘ unfriendly act’ This leads to a 30-year period of freedom from serious foreign involvement for the U.S.

Election of 1824- The Election of 1824 clearly showed that the "era of good feelings" had come to an end and it also showed the disunity arising in America at this time. All the candidates were Democratic-Republicans, but personal and sectional interests outweighed political orthodoxy. Electorate Expanded- 1) Most states eliminated property qualifications; started in North with Massachusetts 2) Free blacks excluded from polls in South and in most of the Northern States. Legislative caucuses elect presidential nominations. The candidates included:                         John Quincy Adams, son of a Federalist president, represented the interests of the Northeast (high protective tariff) and was the leading contender                                                      Henry Clay of Kentucky shared political views with Adams, but they held one another in contempt — the rigid New Englander versus the hard-drinking Westerner                         Andrew Jackson, a Senator from Tennessee and military hero, drew Western support from Clay despite the fact that his political views were not well-known                         William H. Crawford of Georgia was born in Virginia and hoped to continue the "Virginia Dynasty;" he held to the old-line Republican view of limiting the role of the central government, but was still the congressional power brokers' favorite                         John C. Calhoun of South Carolina harbored presidential aspirations, but backed out in the hope of securing the vice presidency.  

Corrupt Bargain - Jackson clearly expected to win the election of 1824, figuring that the House would act to confirm his strong showing. However, Clay, as Speaker of the House, used his influence to sway the vote to Adams. Although they were not close, Clay knew that he and Adams shared a common political philosophy; Clay also knew that Jackson was an avowed opponent of the Bank of the United States, a vital component of the American System. Clay also was not interested in doing anything to further the career of the hero of New Orleans, his main rival in the West. Adams prevailed on the first ballot in the House of Representatives and became the nation's sixth president. His subsequent appointment of Henry Clay as Secretary of State led to angry charges of a "corrupt bargain." 

Dartmouth College (1819)-[Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)] President v. trustees of Dartmouth in NH Becomes a political issue; Republicans back President, Federalists supported Trustees. President tried to make Dartmouth go from a Private to a Public institution by having its charter revoked. Court ruled that the charter represents a contract that could not be arbitrarily changed or revoked without the consent of both parties.} This severely limited the power of state governments to control the corporation, which was the emerging form of business organization. A modern corporation could be defined an individual with a contract

Judiciary act of 1789 - The Judiciary Act of 1789, passed on September 24 of that year, established both the Supreme Court and a rudimentary federal court system. This was the first legislation passed by the new Congress. The Act created thirteen District Courts, which heard small civil suits and minor crimes, within three Federal Circuits. Three Circuit Courts had original jurisdiction over serious federal criminal cases, and appellate jurisdiction over cases heard in the District Courts. The six US Supreme Court justices were responsible for "riding circuit" twice a year, traveling in pairs, and hearing cases as appellate judges. Congress believed this would help the Supreme Court justices stay in touch with local concerns.

Judiciary Act of 1801- represented an effort to solve an issue in the U.S. Supreme Court during the late 18th century. There was concern, beginning in 1789, about the system that required the justices of the Supreme Court to “ride circuit” and reiterate decisions made in the appellate level courts. The Supreme Court justices often took advantage of opportunities to voice concern and to suggest that the judges of the Supreme and circuit courts be divided. Section 1 of the Act declared "the supreme court of the United States shall consist of a chief justice and five associate justices, any four of whom shall be a quorum, and shall hold annually at the seat of government two sessions, the one commencing the first Monday of February, and the other the first Monday of August. That the associate justices shall have precedence according to the date of their commissions, or when the commissions of two or more of them bear date on the same day, according to their respective ages." Section 13 of the Judiciary Act was a topic of controversy in Marbury v. Madison, (1803), when Chief Justice Marshall decided that portion of the legislation was unconstitutional because Congress had overstepped its authority by authorizing the Court to issue writs of mandamus to US government officials, which Marshall interpreted as being in contradiction with the Constitution.  

National Republicans- Republicans who believed that the national government should actively encourage economic development, Adam’s supporters; term coined especially in Election of 1828. The Whig (means “opposition”- derived form the British Whig tradition) party emerges from the ruins on the National Republicans and runs 3 candidates in the Election of 1836 in hopes of upsetting the Jacksonians.  

McCulloch v. Maryland (1815)- The State of Maryland had tried to levy a tax on the Baltimore branch of the Bank of the United States, and so protect the competitive position of its own state banks. Marshall’s ruling declared that no state has the right to control an agency of the federal government. Since “the power to tax is the power to destroy,” such state action violated Congress’ “implied powers” to establish and operate a national bank. This fundamental case established the following two principles: 1. The Constitution grants to Congress implied powers for implementing the Constitution's express powers, in order to create a functional national government. 2. State action may not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the Federal government. 

"Holy Alliance'- an alliance formed in 1815 by Russia, Austria and Prussia. It was led by Metternich. Alliance was meant to squash out revolutions everywhere in the name of Christian and monarchist principles.                 

Gibbons v. Ogden (1823)- The State of New York had granted a monopoly to Ogden to operate a steamboat between New York and New Jersey. Gibbons obtained a Congressional permit to operate a steamboat line in the same waters. When Ogden sued to maintain his monopoly, the New York courts ruled in his favor. Gibbons’ appeal went to the Supreme Court. John Marshall ruled that commerce included navigation, and that only Congress has the right to regulate commerce among states. Thus the State-granted monopoly was void. Decision made was that the federal government has the right to control interstate commerce including navigation.  

Marbury v. Madison (1803)- Marbury was appointed by Adams (to keep Feds. in power) to be Justice of the Peace but Madison did not want to deliver the papers. Marbury sues Madison Marshall says 1) You can NOT sue federal officials 2) Marbury does not get to be judge THIS is because it is unconstitutional } This case established the Supreme Court’s power of judicial review over federal legislation (Checks and Balances) 

American System- an economic system supported by Clay, Calhoun and Adams. They advocated high tariffs in order for internal improvements such as roads and industries and a national bank to encourage productive enterprise and form a national currency. This program was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper, by providing a defense against the dumping of cheap foreign products, mainly at the time from the British Empire.

Fletcher v. Peck -Georgia legislature issued extensive land grants in a sketchy deal with the Yazoo Land Company. The following legislative session repealed that action due to the corruption that was in the original grant. The Marshall Court decided that the original action by the Georgia Assembly had constituted a valid contract which could not be broken regardless of the corruption. } 1st time a state law was voided on the grounds that it violated a principle of the U.S. Constitution or “unconstitutional”.  

American Colonization Society- Founded in 1817 and dissolved in 1912, the American Colonization Society wanted to end slavery but also believed that the races were incompatible. It was the primary vehicle for proposals to return black Americans to greater freedom in Africa, and helped to found the colony of Liberia in 1821–22, as a place to send people who were formerly enslaved. The society was supported by Southerners fearful of organized revolt by free blacks, by Northerners concerned that an influx of black workers would hurt the economic opportunities of indigent whites, by some who opposed slavery but did not favor integration, and by many blacks who saw a return to Africa as the best solution to their troubles.   

The Venerated Plow- A visual depicting a farmer with a plow followed by a lady with a halo on her head. (shows how America is a economical land)                                                                                                                   Samuel L Slater- he is responsible for bringing British textile technology to America. He violated a British emigration law that prohibited the spread of British manufacturing technology to other nations. He memorized the mill’s layout and had it built in America.

Eli Whitney- was an American inventor best known as the inventor of the cotton gin. This was one of the key inventions of the industrial revolution and shaped the economy of the antebellum South.  Whitney's invention made short staple cotton into a profitable crop, which strengthened the economic foundation of slavery                                                                                              

Francis Cabot Lowell- established the Waltham the Boston Manufacturing Company, the first textile mill in America where all operations for converting raw cotton into finished cloth could be performed in one mill building. With Paul Moody he devised an efficient spinning apparatus and a power loom, based on the British models but with technological improvements. Created the “Lowell System” became a popular way to staff New England factories. Young women were hired from the surrounding countryside, brought to town and housed in dormitories in the mill towns. They were paid low wages for hard work under poor conditions, but they were only working for a short time, to earn a dowry or help out with the family income, so they soon went back home. This “rotating labor supply was ideal for the owners since the girls were not motivated to agitate for better wages and conditions. Due to labor supply shortage in this country, the system depended on technology to increase production, thus placing a premium on innovation and machinery and technique.                                        Old National Road- was one of the first major improved highways in the United States, built by the federal government. Connected east to west. It improved transportation and economic prosperity, though it created further tensions between north and south because the road was built in the north and the south couldn’t use it.                                                                                   

Erie Canal-- linked the Hudson River at Albany, New York, with Lake Erie. Completed in 1825. Became the first and most successful example of an artificial waterway. It was followed by a rash of construction until canals linked every major waterway system east of the Mississippi River. Canals were the first development projects to receive large amounts of public funding. They ran east and west and so tied the new West to the old East, with later implications for sectional divisions.                                                       

Boston Associates- Group of wealthy Boston merchants (coming from politically influential families) and including Francis Cabot Lowell; created a blueprint for mass production by incorporating the Boston Manufacturing Company in 1813; built textile mills in MA towns of Waltham and Lowell; controlled 8 companies and over 6,000 workers by 1836; only concerned with raising capital and rarely visited factories

Household System- early form of manufacturing in America. Each family in an area would create one part of an item (like a sleeve) and then one family would compile them together into a whole item (shirt). All families would receive a profit, and this allowed specialization. This was done during the off-season in New England, mostly by wives and children.           

Cotton Gin- invented by Eli Whitney in 1793; use of interchangeable parts to successfully separate fibers of short-staple cotton from seed; removed a major obstacle to the spread of cotton cultivation; cleared the path for settlement of the Old Southwest (esp. Alabama and Mississippi) as cotton production became much more effective and the British textile industry’s demands increased; extended plantation slavery and undermined the doubts of those who considered slavery economically outmoded

King Cotton- In 1790, the South was essentially stagnant. Tobacco had lost economic vitality. The growing alternative cash crops were rice and cotton. The growth of the British textile industry had created a huge demand for cotton, while removal of Native Americans has made way for Southerners to expand, creating the Cotton Kingdom (territory that stretched from Alabama, Mississippi, central and western Tennessee, and Louisiana, and from there on to Arkansas and Texas. This area was ideal for short-staple cotton, due to the coastal location. Eli Whitney’s cotton gin solved the problem of separating seeds from the fibers, and the cotton industry boomed.   

Alexis de Tocqueville- French aristocrat who went to the United States in 1831 with Gustave de Beaumont with the stated purpose of reporting on American prisons to the French government, but real intent of learning about the American republic; wrote the 2-volume Democracy in America in 1835 and 1840 that analyzed the American character; to Tocqueville, Americans only had the goal of becoming rich and are industrious and democratic, with little tolerance for restraints on privilege yet treated nonwhites harshly           

Jacksonian Democracy- - political philosophy of Andrew Jackson and his supporters; emphasis on the common man and popular participation in the government; had strong expansionist theory; echoed Jeffersonian Democracy. The Jacksonian era saw a great increase of respect and power for the common man, as the electorate expanded to include all white male adult citizens, rather than only land owners in that group.               Jacksonian democracy promoted the strength of the presidency and executive branch at the expense of Congress, while also seeking to broaden the public's participation in government 

Tariff of Abominations 1828- during Adams’ presidency, some of Jackson’s supporters in Congress contributed to the passage of a high protective tariff that was favorable to western agriculture and New England’s manufacturing but unfavorable to the South who had few industries to protect so they resulted in having to pay more for manufactured goods; this was an attempt by Jackson’s supporters to give the blame to the Adams administration; not only did this tariff anger the South, but it was set so high that it deterred foreign exporters from shipping products to the US; Calhoun writes the South Carolina Exposition and Protest in response. It was labeled the Tariff of Abominations by its southern detractors because of the effects it had on the antebellum Southern economy. Faced with a reduced market for goods and pressured by hungry British abolitionists, the British reduced their imports of cotton from the United States, which hurt the South. The tariff forced the South to buy manufactured goods from U.S. manufacturers, mainly in the North, at a higher price, while southern states also faced a reduced income from sales of raw materials.            

Election of 1828- - incumbent John Q. Adams against TN senator Andrew Jackson; Jackson won in popular vote and Electoral College by a landslide; turn the old Jefferson Republican party into the modern day Democratic Party; Adams supporters known as National Republicans  

The South Carolina Exposition and Protest - by John C. Calhoun during Jackson’s administration; to Calhoun, only tariffs that raised revenue were constitutional and the tariff of 1828 failed to meet this criterion as it did not benefit everyone equally (Calhoun’s home state (SC) suffered economic decline due to the tariff); similar to the VA-KY Resolves, this writing stated that states had the right to override unconstitutional laws within their borders. The document stated that if the tariff was not repealed, South Carolina would secede 

Webster-Haynes Debate - debate between MA senator Daniel Webster and SC senator Robert Hayne; regarding protectionist tariffs and the selling of western land proposed by Foote so the land already on the market was sold; South against this because want to buy things cheap from other countries; North for high tariff so their goods are bought instead; start to see the rise of sectionalism from this. Haynes tried to side with westerners so they would support them in order to keep gaining money, and Webster knows Calhoun wrote SC Exposition and Protest so he says that the south is going to destroy the union and that they are traitors.   

Ordinance of Nullification- the tariff of 1828 and 1832 null and void within the state borders of South Carolina. It began the Nullification Crisis. Passed by a state convention on November 24, 1832, it led, on December 10, to President Andrew Jackson's proclamation against South Carolina, which sent a naval flotilla and a threat of sending government ground troops to enforce the tariffs. IN the face of the military threat, and following a Congressional revision of the tariff, South Carolina repealed the ordinance. Georgia's earlier acts said to cause South Carolina to create the Ordinance of Nullification. Many Southerners were not satisfied when Congress lowered tariffs slightly in 1832.  In response, South Carolina’s state legislature passed laws nullifying the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 and forbidding the collection of the tariffs in South Carolina.  South Carolina also threatened to withdraw from the United States ­ if its stance on the tariff was not respected.   

Maysville Road veto- Idea to make a nationally funded road like the National Road; however bill was vetoed by Jackson, claiming it was unconstitutional; opposed by people for internal improvements. Jackson also pointed out that funding for these kinds of projects interfered with the paying off of the national debt. In reality, Jackson vetoed it because he knew that this road would benefit Kentucky where Clay is from, and he is not going to let Kentucky’s land prosper because he hates Clay.

Worcester v. Georgia- in 1832, Chief Justice Marshall clarified the Cherokees’ legal position by holding that they were a “distinct” political community entitled to federal protection from tampering by GA; this followed the Cherokee’s proclamation as an independent republic within GA in 1827 as well as the case of Cherokee Nation v. GA in 1831 when Marshall declared that they were a “domestic dependent nation”; president Jackson ignores Marshall, and federal agents persuaded some chiefs to sign the Treaty of New Echota which established terms under which the entire Cherokee Nation was expected to move west to the Indian Territory. Although it was not approved by the Cherokee National Council, it was ratified by the U.S. Senate and became the legal basis for the forcible removal known as the Trail of Tears.               

Nicholas Biddle- of the Second National Bank in 1823, appointed by Monroe; initiated the “Bank War” against Jackson when he applied for a re-charter four years before the charter was to expire and Jackson vetoed it.                                                Bank War- name given to controversy over the Second Bank of the United States and the attempts to destroy it by then-president Andrew Jackson. At that time, the bank was the only nationwide bank and exerted tremendous influences over the nation's financial system. However, in 1832 Andrew Jackson vetoed the renewal of the Second Bank of the United State’s charter. Jackson viewed the Second Bank of the United States as a monopoly since it was a private institution managed by a board of directors. Its president, Nicholas Biddle, exercised vast influence in the nation's financial affairs. Biddle and Henry Clay applied to renew the bank's charter four years earlier than necessary in order to make it an election issue. But when Jackson easily won in the election of 1832, he interpreted this victory as a mandate to terminate the bank entirely. Would lead to the use of pet banks which would cause major inflation and panic of 1837.  

Specie Circular- issued by Jackson. He feared inflation so the Specie Circular stated that no federal land could be purchased unless it was purchased with gold. Westerners get angry, and prices collapse since no one had gold, only paper money. The consequences of the executive order fell mostly on his successor Martin Van Buren.                                                                       

Second Party System- -new set of political parties formed (1828-54): Democratic Party (Jackson), Whig Party (Clay)                     

Corrupt Bargain- Andrew Jackson’s reaction to election of 1824; Jackson won more votes than any other candidate but not a majority; decision goes to the House; House elected J.Q. Adams and Adams named Speaker of House, Henry Clay as Secretary of State, a platform to the next presidency; Jackson called it a “Corrupt Bargain” because Clay used his influence to secure Adams and his new position  

Trail of Tears- occurred as a result of the “Indian Removal Act” signed by Jackson; The Cherokees, living in Georgia, tried to repeal by going to the Supreme Court to establish their own “Cherokee Nation” (Cherokee Nation v. Georgia); by 1838, however, the Five Civilized Tribes, incl. the Cherokee, had been removed in what is known as the Trail of Tears                                                                                                                                                                   Unit IV Terms  

Second Great Awakening- Began in Connecticut in 1790’s as an emotional counteroffensive to the deism identified with the Enlightenment. Ministers assaulted Calvinism by stressing the mercy, love, and benevolence of God. Emphasized the ability of people to control their own fate, even to achieve their own salvation. . Evangelical participation in social causes was fostered that changed American life in areas such as prison reform, abolitionism, and temperance.                                                                                                                  Auburn System- a prison system first implemented in Auburn, New York, that focused on rehabilitating criminals through controlled social interaction. It was to reform the original solitary confinement.

Seneca Falls Convention 1848- held in Seneca Falls, New York on July 19 - July 20, 1848, was the first women's rights convention held in the United States, and as a result is often called the birthplace of the feminist movement. It is where the Declaration of Sentiments, by Elizabeth Stanton, was signed stating that all women were equal to men. It proved much controversy.

Dorothea Dix- Reformist. Early 19th century, devoted herself to campaign to improve care of insane--traveled extensively inspecting asylums, prisons, almshouses, but in long run hopes for reform were not realized.

Waltham System- Deteriorated horrendously with influx of immigrants (Irish). Sys introduced by Lowell.  Sys where entire process of converting cotton into cloth took place under one roof. Before good treatment w/ women workers and employer, but immigrants work for less, also scorned because Cath, rapport lessened.                                                                                                      

Temperance movement- Attracted many advocates in early 19th century. Waged national crusade against drunkenness. Advocates used both moral appeals and coercive power of law to reduce consumption of liquor. Considerably successful. American Temperance Society was formed by Lyman Beecher. Opposition came from alcohol producers and immigrants.

William Lloyd Garrison- Liberator: Radical abolitionist. Called for immediate emancipation of slaves.  Racial equality. Confrontational tactics and extremist views repelled moderate abolitionists as well as general public. "The Liberator": an influential abolitionist newspaper by Garrison (called for immediate emancipation and treatment of blacks as equals).                            

Mormons- founded in 1827 by Joseph Smith, who was persecuted for his eccentric beliefs and eventually killed by a mob. The sect continued under Brigham Young in 1846, but was forced westward into Salt Lake City, Utah. Known for polygamy.                                         

Frederick Douglass- (1817-1895) A self-educated slave who escaped in 1838 from Maryland. Settled in Boston and became an agent of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society and a featured speaker at its public meetings - Douglas became the best-known abolitionist speaker. Douglass insisted that freedom for blacks required not merely emancipation but full equality, social and economic as well as political. He also created the newspaper called The North Star.                                                                                                                        Elizabeth Cady Stanton- was a leading figure of the Women's rights movement in the United States. With her husband, Henry Stanton, she was also active in the anti-slavery Abolitionist movement. She wrote many of the more important documents and speeches of the movement, and was with Lucretia Mott the primary organizer of the 1848 Women's Rights Convention in Seneca Falls. In 1851 she met Susan B. Anthony; together, in 1869 they founded the National Woman's Suffrage Association, an organization dedicated to gaining women the right to vote; Stanton was its first president. She and Mott also wrote the Declaration of Sentiments.

Prigg v. Pennsylvania- a United States Supreme Court case in which the court held that Federal law is superior to State law, and overturned the conviction of Edward Prigg as a result. A black woman, Margarett Morgan moved to Pennsylvania from Maryland where she had once been a slave, but her master, John Ashmore died. She lived in Pennsylvania rather freely but never formally emancipated. Ashmore’s heirs decided to reclaim her as a slave and sent Edward Prigg to abduct her in order to sell her in Maryland. Morgan sued Prigg claiming Pennsylvania’s personal liberty laws, but Court declared unconstitutional all fugitive slave laws enacted by the states on the ground that the federal law provided the exclusive remedy for the return of runaway slaves.

American Colonization Society- Founded in 1817 and dissolved in 1912, the American Colonization Society wanted to end slavery but also believed that the races were incompatible. It was the primary vehicle for proposals to return black Americans to greater freedom in Africa, and helped to found the colony of Liberia in 1821–22, as a place to send people who were formerly enslaved. The society was supported by Southerners fearful of organized revolt by free blacks, by Northerners concerned that an influx of black workers would hurt the economic opportunities of indigent whites, by some who opposed slavery but did not favor integration, and by many blacks who saw a return to Africa as the best solution to their troubles. 

Liberator- Abolitionist Newspaper written by Frederick Douglass                 

Uncle Tom's Cabin- An antislavery novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe stating how cruel slavery was.

Lucricia Mott- an American Quaker, abolitionist, social reformer, and proponent of women's rights. She is credited as the first American "feminist" in the early 1800s but was, more accurately, the initiator of women's political advocacy. She and Stanton organized the Woman’s Rights Convention in Seneca Falls.                                                                                                                        Grinkee Sisters- Sarah and Angelina Grimke were among the first leading advocates of equal rights for women who began their public careers in the abolitionist movement. They were South Carolinians who abandoned their native state and the domestic sphere to devote themselves to speaking out against slavery. Male objections to the Grimkes' activities soon made them advocates of women's rights.                   

German - Irish immigration- Irish immigrants replaced the Lowell Mill Girls. Immigrants mainly came from northern and western Europe, and their push was for wanting a better life.

Manifest Destiny- Phrase commonly used in the 1840's and 1850's. It expressed the inevitableness of continued expansion of the U.S. to the Pacific; Americans were God's chosen people. Manifest Destiny Issues: The annexation of Texas and the reoccupation of Oregon. Tariff reform. Polk promoted Manifest Destiny.                                                                                                                             Webster-Ashburton Treaty 1842- August 1842; agreement was concluded between. Webster (U.S.) and Ashburton (GB). The treaty settled the Northeast Boundary Dispute, which had caused serious conflicts, such as the Aroostook War. Over 7,000 sq mi of the disputed area, including the Aroostook valley, were given to the United States, and several waterways, including the St. Johns River, were opened to free navigation by both countries. The Webster-Ashburton Treaty also settled the disputed position of the U.S.-Canada border in the Great Lakes region. From this also came the Masabi Range where the U.S. gained the largest supply of iron in the world.     

Election of 1844- Candidates Clay (Whig) and Van Buren (Democrat) agree to not discuss the slavery/Texas issue; this leaks out and so Calhoun and the Southern Democrats no longer supported Van Buren. Instead they picked Polk, who ran under a manifest destiny campaign. Clay waffled on the issue, and the conscience Whigs formed the anti-slavery Liberty Party, running Birney as their candidate. In NY he took away enough votes from Clay so that Polk won.                                                                                                                                                Mr. Polk's War"- 1846; Many northerners feared that the war would lead to the expansion of slavery. Lincoln and others felt that Polk had misled Congress about the outbreak of fighting and that the United States was the aggressor. The farther from the Rio Grande, the less popular "Mr. Polk's War" became; in New England opposition was widespread. Polk's design for the war consisted of three parts: 1) clear the Mexicans from Texas and occupy the northern provinces of Mexico, 2) take possession of California and New Mexico, 3) march on Mexico City. He originally sent John Slidell to buy California.

Wilmot Proviso- (1846) Democrat David Wilmot of Pennsylvania introduced a rider to a bill being considered by the house which would provide funds for Mexico negotiations. It barred slavery from any territory acquired from Mexico. The bill containing the Wilmot Proviso passed the House in 1846 and 1847; both times, however, it was defeated in the Senate. The position in the proviso was the basic plank of the Free-Soil Party platform and would later become a fundamental position of the new Republican Party. Measures prohibiting the spread of slavery would be introduced repeatedly by Northern lawmakers in the coming years, thus sharpening tensions between the regions.             

John Slidell- Was sent by Polk in Nov. 1846 to negotiate with Mexico, who refused to sell the disputed territory (the US said the boundary was the Rio Grande; Mexico said it was the Nucces River, to the north). Then there was a military coup and Mexico was controlled by anti-Americans who wanted to reclaim all of Texas.

Nicholas Trist- Sent as a special envoy by President Polk to Mexico City in 1847 to negotiate an end to the Mexican War.     

Compromise of 1850- In 1849, the question of the extension of slavery into former Mexican lands was becoming critical. Enthusiastic Californians petitioned for admission statehood, after their population grew enormously during the Gold Rush, thus laying down a challenge to the existing sectional balance of 15 free states and 15 slave states. President Taylor was prepared to approve the admission of California. In 1850, his death brought Millard Fillmore into office. The 1850 compromise called for the admission of California as a free state, no mention of slavery in the new territories, no slave trade in DC, Texas debts paid, and a stronger fugitive slave law.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848- 1848; Trist negotiated this treaty after ignoring Polk’s recall to go home because he realized that no one in authority would be left in Mexico if he didn’t hurry since the Mexican government was disintegrating. This treaty required Mexico to cede the American Southwest, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada and California, to the U.S. U.S. gave Mexico $15 million in exchange, so that it would not look like conquest.                                                                                                               Free Soil Party- A combination of the anti-slavery faction of the Whig Party and the Liberty Party; ran the Wilmot Proviso as their platform and Van Buren as their candidate in the election of 1848. Also known as the Barnburners (they were willing to burn down the barn to get rid of the rats); they were their own party because the Van Buren wing of the Democrats didn’t like Cass because he was willing to allow slavery in the new territories and because he led the nomination of Polk in the 1844 election

Election of 1848- Whigs nominate Taylor and let Clay pick Fillmore as VP, avoid slavery issue; Democrats nominate Cass and run under popular sovereignty (letting states decide slavery issue for themselves); the anti-slavery Free Soil Party runs Van Buren, who takes enough votes away from Cass in NY to cost him the election so Taylor is elected.                                                       

Preemption Act of 1841- federal law approved by the U.S. Congress on September 4, 1841, to "appropriate the proceeds of the sales of the public lands, and to grant pre-emption rights." Specifically, it permitted squatters on government land who were heads of households, widows, or single men over 21; who were citizens of the United States, or intended to become naturalized; and who had lived there for at least 14 months to purchase up to 160 acres at a very low price (not less than $1.25 per acre) before the land was offered for sale to the public. This also helped spread the Manifest Destiny movement. 

Liberty Party- The first abolitionist party organized in 1840; believed in ending slavery.            

Transcendentalism- a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early to middle 19th century. Among transcendentalists' core beliefs was an ideal spiritual state that 'transcends' the physical and empirical and is only realized through the individual's intuition, rather than through the doctrines of established religions.          

Edmund Ruffin- a farmer and slaveholder, a Confederate soldier, and an 1850s political activist. He advocated states' rights, secession, and slavery and was described by opponents as one of the Fire-Eaters. He was an ardent supporter of the Confederacy and an enemy of the North for its invasion of his state Va.                                                                                                                                         Nat Turner- In 1831, Nat Turner, who believed he was a divine instrument sent to free his people, led 60 slaves in an uprising, killing almost 60 Whites in South Hampton, Virginia. This led to a sensational manhunt in which 100 Blacks were killed. As a result, slave states strengthened measures against slaves and became more united in their support of fugitive slave laws.                                 

Clipper Ships- a very fast sailing ship of the 19th century sailed all over the world, primarily on the trade routes between the United Kingdom and its colonies in the east, in trans-Atlantic trade, and the New York-to-San Francisco route round Cape Horn during the California Gold Rush.                       

Denmark Vesey- A mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston, South Carolina in 1822, but one of them betrayed him and he and his thirty-seven followers were hanged before the revolt started.                   

Eugene Genovese- Historian who believed in the paternalist system of slaves.           Stanley Elkins- Historian who believed that blacks were infantile and needed to be controlled.

Kenneth Stampp- Historian who believed that slaves knew what freedom was and they did small inconspicuous things to take advantage. Yeoman Farmer- refers to a farmer who cultivates his own land                    

Unit V Terms
Wade-Davis Manifesto 1864: Bill proposed by radicals during reconstruction. The bill stated that for former confederate states to reenter the Union,50% of the state had to swear they had never been disloyal to the union. This bill was made in opposition to Lincoln's ten percent plan, where only 10% had to pledge loyalty to the united states. Lincoln vetoed the Wade-Davis bill, making radicals unhappy and accusing Lincoln of being pro-South.  

Election of 1864: Lincoln got re-nomination for Republican party which was renamed the Union party. He brought on Andrew Johnson as the vice president nominee, a southern war democrat. Lincoln did not believe he would get reelected because the war was not going well. The Democrats nominated an old war General, McClelland. The Democratic convention wanted to run on a "peace-without victory" platform, which McClelland disagreed with. With the disorganization of the Democrats and the fall of Atlanta, Lincoln was able to win a huge unexpected victory in the election.  

Black Codes 1865:legislation passed by Southern states at the end of the Civil War to control the labor, movements and activities of newly freed slaves. The Black Codes outraged the North because it seemed the South was creating a form of quasi-slavery to evade the results of the war. After winning large majorities in the 1866 elections, the Republicans put the South under military rule. They held new elections in which the Freedmen could vote. The new governments repealed all the Black Codes, and they were never reenacted.  

Freedmen's Bureau: An federal agency provided relief, rations, and medical care in the South. It also built school for blacks and helped them get jobs and protect their labor rights. During Congressional reconstruction Congress voted to extend the bureau. It also gave it new power to run military courts to settle labor disputes and invalidate labor contracts made by the black codes. Johnson vetoed the increase in power and disbanded the Bureau.  

Slaughterhouse Cases, 1873: In 1869, the Louisiana legislature granted a monopoly over the New Orleans slaughterhouse business to one firm and closed down all other slaughterhouses. Excluded butchers felt that the state had deprived them of their lawful occupation w/o due process of law which violates the 14th amendment (no state could "abridge the privileges or immunities" of US citizens). Supreme Court declared that the 14th protected only rights of national citizenship (right to interstate travel, right to fed. protection on high seas) but not basic civil rights of state citizenship. Thus, fed government was not obliged to protect rights against violation by the states. This decision nearly nullified the intent of the 14th: to secure freedmen's rights against state encroachment.  

Whiskey Ring: a group of distillers who bribed federal agents to avoid paying the millions of dollars in whiskey taxes; President Grant's private secretary, Orville Babcock, was one of those who took the money; this contributed to damaging Grant's reputation and showed how corrupted his administration was.  

Tenure of Office Act, 1867: passed by Republicans in Congress to limit presidential power; cabinet members were to hold office "during the term of the president by whom they may have been appointed” and can be fired only by senate's approval. This was to prevent Johnson from dismissing Sec of War, Henry Stanton, who was a Radical ally needed to enforce the Reconstruction acts.  

Credit Mobilier: a fraudulent construction company created by the directors of the Union Pacific Railroad to skim off the railroad's profits. Grant's vice president, Schuyler Colfax, was linked to this company and Grant dropped him in the 1872 election.  

Ostend Manifesto-issued by Pierce in October of 1854 to call on the US to acquire Cuba by any means. Southerners wanted an aggressive policy with Spanish-ruled Cuba in order to make the island become a possible new slave state. Even with Pierce later rejecting it, the idea of expansion into the Caribbean attracted Southerners, causing sectionalism between the North and South.  

54-40 or Fight- the slogan for Polk’s platform in the election of 1844. Polk planned on get territory up to the 54 40 parallel, even if we had to go into war. But with the war against Texas, Polk didn’t want to fight on two fronts, so the British and US created the Treaty of Oregon, and made the boundary the 49th parallel.  

Sumner-Brooks Affair 1856. - Republican Charles Sumner (anti slavery) of Massachusetts delivered a speech in congress about “Bleeding Kansas”, singling out Andrew Butler of SC for his choice of a mistress and tendency to drool. Two days later, Preston Brooks, a Dem. Relative of Butler, came up to Sumner at his desk and beat him with his cane. Sumner req. stitches and did not return to Congress for three years. Brooks became a hero in the South.  

Election of 1856- Rep/Northern Know Nothings- John C. Fremont, Southern Know Nothings-Milliard Fillmore, Democrats- James Buchanan. It becomes Fremont vs. Buchanan in the free states and Fillmore vs. Buchanan in the slave states. Buchanan wins. Three conclusions come out of this election→ 1. The Am. Party was finished as a major national force. 2. The Republican Party did very well considering their existence of scarcely a year. 3. As long as the Democrats could unite behind a single national candidate, they would be hard to defeat.  

13th Amendment- The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished and continues to prohibit slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. It was adopted on December 6, 1865, and was then declared in a proclamation of Secretary of State William H. Seward on December 18. The Thirteenth Amendment is the first of the Reconstruction Amendments.  

14th Amendment- was adopted after the Civil War as one of the Reconstruction Amendments on July 9, 1868. It was radical in granting significant power to the newly freed slaves while at the same time reducing the power of all the states. The amendment provides a broad definition of citizenship, overruling the decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), which had excluded slaves, and their descendants, from possessing Constitutional rights. The amendment stated that all men born in the United States were given equal rights (except Native Americans). Confederate debts were repudiated and Congress could make pardons. Although blacks were now considered equal, their vote was not guaranteed because if a state chose to deny a male 21 years of age or older a vote, their representation in congress would be reduced. Johnson opposed this amendment and influenced the south to vote against it.  

15th Amendment- prohibits each government in the United States from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude" (i.e., slavery). It was ratified on February 3, 1870.  

Reconstruction Acts of 1867- Considered the heart of Congressional Reconstruction. Since the south failed to ratify the 14th amendment, the Radicals passed the first reconstruction act in March 1867. The Acts established: - The south be divided into 5 military districts (Except for Tennessee because they passed the 14th Amendment) so that the areas could make new legislations, constitutions, and get new governors. All had to include black male suffrage. - The Wade-Davis bill must be included in all new constitutions - The 14th Amendment had to be ratified in order for states to be able to be readmitted in the Union. - Voters were to be registered; all freedmen were to be included as well as those white men who took an extended loyalty oath - Confederate Leaders were banned voting.

Johnson vetoed this and congress overrode it.
Southern Republicans- consisted of three groups. White farmers and former Whigs were called scalawags (native white Southerners who joined the Republican Party and aided in carrying out the congressional Reconstruction program) by opponents. Northern transplants were called Carpetbaggers. The largest constituency was freedmen. Southern freedmen served in government positions including the U. S. Congress and state legislatures.  

 Compromise of 1850- [Written by Henry Clay]
Zachary Taylor (Louisiana slaveholder) opposed further spread of slavery. Wanted California and Mexican Cession to organize and seek admission directly as states. Southerners mad; thought of this as another ‘Wilmot Proviso’ which they hated. Felt like south was becoming a minority in the U.S. If California admitted, South would be outvoted in Senate as well as in the House of Reps. = CHAOS OVER THE COMPROMISE a. Statehood for California ( North=Free State)

b. Territorial status for Utah and New Mexico( likely to become free states) c. Allowing popular sovereignty (South doesn’t have to be accept Wilmot Proviso in the sense that Congress would formally prohibit slavery in these territories d. Resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundary disagreement (Most of disputed area awarded to New Mexico probable free state e. Federal assumption of the Texas debt- $10,000,000

f. Abolition of the slave trade in District of Columbia
g. New Stronger Fugitive Slave Law
Clay- “Compromise and mutual forbearance”
Calhoun- “Only way to save Union was for the North to give in to the entire South’s demands and keep quiet about slavery” Webster- “Abandons previous opposition to spread of slavery and supports Compromise “ Senator Stephan A. Douglas of Illinois (a.k.a. Little Giant) broke Clay’s proposal into its parts so that he could push each part through congress this passing the compromise.  

Election of 1852- Democratic Convention can’t choose between Cass and Douglas so they settle on dark horse Franklin Pierce of New Hampshire. Whigs choose General Winfield Scott, a war hero with no political background. Pierce wins by a landslide especially because the Whig Party was divided among North-South lines due to the battle over the Compromise of 1850. The Free Soil Party’s candidate was John P. Hale of New Hampshire who lost. Badly.  

Kansas Nebraska Act 1854- Made by Senator Stephan A. Douglas of Illinois who wanted to organize the territories west of Missouri and Iowa (Nebraska and Kansas Territories). Douglas hoped this organization would lead to the building of a trans-continental railroad on a central route. Pressured by South, Douglas included in the bill an explicit repeal of the Missouri Compromise and that there be popular sovereignty in the newly organized territories. Bill opposed by most Northern Democrats and most Whigs, but support of the Southern-dominated Pierce administration allowed it to pass and become law.  

"Bleeding Kansas" 1856- Refers to the time between 1854-58 when the Kansas territory was the site of much violence over whether the territory would be free or slave. The Kansas-Nebraska Act set the scene by allowing the territory of Kansas to decide for itself whether it would be free or slave (popular sovereignty). With the passage of the act, thousands of pro- and anti-slavery supporters flooded the state. When the “border ruffians” who crossed into Kansas on Election Day to vote were called out by the presidentially appointed territorial governor Pierce removed him from office. Fanatical abolitionist John Brown killed and mutilated five unarmed men and boys at a pro-slavery settlement of Pottawatomie Creek. Around 200 died due to the fighting. Senator Charles Sumner (anti-slavery and anti- Senator Andrew Butler) got beat by Butler’s nephew Preston Brooks from behind with a cane. = North outrage and South declaring Brooks as a hero who got many new canes as gifts. Several constitutions for the future state of Kansas were created, some pro- and some anti-slavery.  

Freeport Doctrine- By Douglas in response to Lincoln’s “question”. Said that slaves could go into territory, but won’t go since police wouldn’t catch runaway slaves.  
Homestead Act 1862- Signed into law by Abraham Lincoln after the secession of southern states, this Act turned over vast amounts of the public domain to private citizens. 10% of the area of the US was claimed and settled under this act. A homesteader had only to be the head of a household and at least 21 years of age to claim a 160 acre parcel of land. Has been called one the most important pieces of Legislation in the history of the United States.  

Election 1860- Republicans: Lincoln (no slavery in territory) vs. Seward (senator that said there was higher law than constitution and Dred Scott case for slavery). Northern Democrats pick Douglas (due to popular sovereignty). Southern Democrats pick Breckenridge (with Dred Scott decision as platform). Lincoln wins.  

Crittenden Compromise 1860- 5 constitutional amendments: 1. “Never abolish”- ok with Lincoln. 2. Extend 36’30” to any new territory- Lincoln said no (at his most radical), so Crittenden stops.  
Redemption- Southerners wanted a return back to self-governance. They gave this idea the term redemption.  
Election 1876- This election ranks higher than other disputed elections because it is set against the backdrop of Reconstruction. Samuel Tilden led in popular and electoral votes but was one shy of the necessary votes to win. The existence of disputed electoral votes led to the Compromise of 1877. the 15 committee was formed and voted along party lines, awarding Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) the presidency. It is believed that Hayes agreed to end Reconstruction and recall all troops from the South in exchange for the presidency. The election of Hayes meant the end of Reconstruction.  

Compromise of 1877- Southerner in cabinet. Remove last union troops from Old Confederacy (South Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana). Blacks in hands of white Southerners. South back in control of race issue. The country was at least reunified as a modern nation-state led by cooperate and industrial interests.  

Plessey v. Ferguson 1896- Homer Plessey was jailed for sitting in a railroad car designated for whites only. Plessey was in fact seven-eighths white and one-eighth black which by Louisiana law meant he was treated as an African-American and required to sit in the car designated for "colored" patrons. When Plessey lost his initial court case, his appeal made it to the US Supreme Court. The Court ruled 7-1 that the Louisiana law requiring that the races be separated did not violate the thirteenth or fourteenth amendments to the Constitution as long as the facilities were deemed equal. Gave legal standing to the idea of separate but equal. This doctrine required that any separate facilities had to be of equal quality.  

Lecompton Constitution 1857- Pro-slavery constitution. Allowed for Kansas to be a slave state. Pro-slavery forces supported by President James Buchanan attempted to push the Constitution through the US Congress for acceptance. However, there was enough opposition that it was sent back to Kansas for a vote. Even though it delayed statehood, Kansas voters rejected the Constitution and Kansas became a free state.  

Dred Scott v. Sanford 1857- Dred Scott (Missouri slave) was encouraged by abolitionists to sue for his freedom on the basis that his owner had taken him for a stay for several years in a free state (Illinois) and then in a free territory (Wisconsin). Dred Scott lost his case proving that he should be free because he had been held as a slave while living in a free state. The Court ruled that his petition could not be seen because he did not hold any property. But it went further, to state that even though he had been taken by his 'owner' into a free state, he was still a slave because slaves were to be considered property of their owners. This decision furthered the cause of abolitionists as they increased their efforts to fight against slavery.  

Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858- About institution of slavery in politics. Lincoln portrayed Douglas as pro-slavery and as a defender of the Dred Scott decision. Douglas said Lincoln was an abolitionist.  

John Brown 1859- Made his 2nd tragic contribution to sectional paranoia when he and 18 followers raided Harper’s Ferry, Virginia. Executed for treason against state. Southerners viewed his as a radical abolitionist, while Northerners saw him as a martyr.

Unit VI Terms
Henry Bessemer- Inventor of the Bessemer system which involved blowing oxygen through ore, putting in carbon, and creating steel. Needed for flexible iron, (steel). Impacted steel industry (iron), greatly.                                    

Frederick W. Taylor- an American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. He is regarded as the father of scientific management, and was one of the first management consultants.                                     

Andrew Carnegie- steel man: good organizer but knows nothing about steel. He began as a factory worker. Has a good grasp of times. One of the "luck and pluck" boys. 1873, Andy bought steel companies at low prices, and managed to do extremely well with them. In 1890 his corporation dominates industry. He used Vertical Integration. Which is the process that encompasses entire industry and every aspect of it. His corporation is the first billion dollar corporation.

“Vertical Integration”- Seeking to include the broad population of workers within an industry, skilled or unskilled. Industrial Unions are an example of this. These labor organizations seek to include within their ranks all workers, skilled and unskilled, who are employed within a given industry (railroads, steel, etc.).                                                                                                                      "horizontal integration"- Seeking to include entire population of similarly skilled workers. Trade or Craft Unions are an example of this. These labor organizations restrict membership to the practitioners of a specific craft or trade (shoemakers, electricians, plumbers and so forth). This type of union has been present in America from colonial times.

Trusts- In a business application, the trust was an arrangement under which stockholders in a company would assign their shares to trustees, who have the voting power to guide the decision-making of that company. In the United States, trusts came under increasing public criticism in the late 19th century and would become the subject of antitrust legislation. The state of New Jersey in 1889 enacted new corporation legislation, authorizing the use of the holding company to circumvent the discredited trust.  

Social Darwinism- Application of Charles Darwin's scientific theories of evolution and natural selection to contemporary social development. Only the strongest survive. This form of justification was enthusiastically adopted by many American businessmen as scientific proof of their superiority. Herbert Spencer and William G. Sumner were proponents.

Gospel of Wealth- Notion promoted by many successful businessmen that their massive wealth was a social benefit for all. The Gospel of Wealth was a softer and more palatable version of Social Darwinism. The advocates linked wealth with responsibility, arguing that those with great material possessions had equally great obligations to society. Conwell, Alger, and Carnegie supported this view.                   

William G. Sumner- 1840-1910; Yale-based sociologist and political economist with extreme laissez faire position, arguing that the government had absolutely no role in the economy's functions. He argued against antitrust legislation and also protective tariffs and government intervention on behalf of management in labor strike situations. To Sumner, the economy was a natural event and needed no guidance in its evolution. He concluded that all forms of social reform were futile and misguided. Sumner's views contrasted sharply with those of the advocates of the Social Gospel.

Henry George- wrote "Progress and Poverty" (1879); suggested there should be a property tax on unimproved land, because the owner had done no work and therefore didn’t deserve its increased value. This money should go to pay for social services.    

AFL- The American Federation of Labor was a combination of national craft unions established in 1886, led by Adolph Strasser and Samuel Gompers of the Cigar makers Union. They focused on issues like higher wages and shorter hours, and developed worker’s pride.

Strikes- workers were upset because of immigrants, machinery, they had no insurance, and the unwillingness of owners to bargain collectively. Several strikes were created such as The Great Railroad Strike (1877) which resulted in massive amounts of money lost, the Haymarket Strike (1886) which started off relatively peaceful until anarchists set off a bomb, the Homestead and Coeur d’ Alene (1892), and the Pullman Strike (1894). All strikes are suppressed, and overall message to workers was that they should be glad that they have a job.

Dawes Severalty Act- (1887) ; Attempt by Congress to assimilate Native American tribes into American society.  It divided tribal lands into small plots for distribution among members of the tribe to promote individual ownership and farming, each family was to receive 160 acres, single adults 80 acres, and children 40 acres.  Surplus land was to be sold to white settlers with profits going to Native American schools.   Citizenship was granted to Native Americans who accepted the distribution of land and "adopted the habits of civilized life." Most regulations set forth by the act were ignored by whites enforcing it in the west; the best and most fertile land was reserved for the settlers.

Chinese Exclusion Act- 1882; due to a reemergence of Nativism in America, Congress passed this act to suspend the immigration of Chinese laborers for ten years. Their was an influx of Chinese that were upsetting the western states.  (In the 1860’s, nearly one-third of the miners in the West were Chinese, us white-folks had to keep all the gold to ourselves!)                    

Frederick Jackson Turner- wrote an influential paper in 1893 entitled "The Significance of the Frontier in American History", it claimed "The existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward, explain American development." this became known as "the frontier thesis"

Timber and Stone Act- 1878; 160 acres of land valuable for timber and stone could be purchased from the federal government.            

Bonanza farming- In 1874, 13 thousand acres of land were staked out and Bonanza Farms began to rise. The name, Bonanza Farm, implied a lucky strike or a get-rich quick opportunity for those people willing to take the risk. The idea of trading bonds for land had become a marketing bonanza for the railroad and the region. Stories telling of the giant farms in the Dakota Territory spread across the world and during the 1880’s people began to flock to the northern Dakota Territory. It’s estimated that at one time there were 91 different bonanza farms in operation up and down the Red River Valley and west along Northern Pacific’s railroad line. As land values dropped, along with the price of grain, many bonanza farmers found their profit in selling or renting their land to smaller farmers.

Atlanta Compromise- Speech that Booker T. Washington made to a bunch of white southerners about how black should subordinate themselves to whites after the war. The Southerners were very pleased with what he said; Washington was actually a self-educated black man, and one of the first after slaves were freed.                                                                                                                     Battle of Wounded Knee- (June 25, 1876); Lt. Colonel George Custer, thinking he had a small band of rebelling Native Americans surrounded, divided his soldiers (about 300) and stumbled into the main Sioux camp. Instead of a small band, he was met with 2500 warriors.  Custer and all his men were defeated in a matter of hours.

Sherman Anti-Trust Act- 1890; principal antimonopoly law in United States business law. It made illegal "Every contract, combination, in the form of trust, or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce among the several states." Ironically, was often used against union strikers. Designed to revive competition and suppress monopolies.                                    

Interstate Commerce Act- created the Interstate Commerce Commission, the first true federal regulatory agency. It was designed to address the issues of railroad abuse and discrimination and required the following: Shipping rates had to be "reasonable and just", Rates had to be published, Secret rebates were outlawed, Price discrimination against small markets was made illegal. Didn’t work very well (they lost every case) but was the first federal regulatory board.

Munn V. Illinois- 1877; the owner of a grain elevator refused to follow a state warehouse act; Supreme Court decided any business that served a public interest, such as a railroad or a grain warehouse, was subject to state control and legislatures might fix maximum charges; if the charges seemed unreasonable, the parties concerned should direct their complaints to the legislatures or to the voters, not to the courts.       

US v EC Knight- 1895; Supreme Court rules that even though the American Sugar Refining Co took over many of its competitors and controlled over 98% of all U.S. sugar refining, it did not violate the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. Corporations begin to use the 14th amendment to help their business, and the amendment allows businesses to grow unrestrained.

Reservation system- the establishment of reservations for Native Americans to live their.       

Boss Tweed- an American politician most famous for his leadership of Tammany Hall, the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in the politics of 19th century New York. At the height of his influence, Tweed was the third-largest landowner in New York City, a director of the Erie Railway, the Tenth National Bank, and the New-York Printing Company, as well as proprietor of the Metropolitan Hotel.  

Horatio Alger- a prolific 19th-century American author whose principal output was formulaic juvenile novels that followed the adventures of bootblacks, newsboys, peddlers, buskers, and other impoverished children in their rise from humble backgrounds to lives of respectable middle-class security and comfort. Many of Alger's works have been described as rags to riches stories, illustrating how down-and-out boys might be able to achieve the American Dream of wealth and success through hard work, courage, determination, and concern for others.                

Pacific Railway Act-1862- 1862; an act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean. It gave land grants in the western United States to the Union Pacific Railroad and Central Pacific Railroad (later the Southern Pacific Railroad) to construct a transcontinental railroad.

Charles Darwin- an amateur geologist. He is known for the theory of evolution and natural selection. He challenges the divine creation. He wrote the Origin of Species which creates the theory of evolution and natural selection and the survival of the fittest.

Joseph F. Glidden- 1874; he marketed the first barbed wire, solving the problem of how to fence cattle in the vast open spaces of the Great Plains where lumber was scarce, thus changing the American West.                   

Central Pacific- Went east from Sacramento and met the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory Point, Utah on May 10, 1869, where the golden spike ceremony was held. Transcontinental railroad overcharged the federal government and used substandard materials.

Union Pacific- Began in Omaha in 1865 and went west.

Credit Mobilier- Illegal manipulation of construction contracts for the Union Pacific Railroad that became a symbol of corruption after the American Civil War. The railroad's major stockholders created Crédit Mobilier of America to divert its construction profits and gave or sold stock to influential politicians in return for favors. A newspaper exposed the scheme in 1872, and after a Congressional investigation two members of the House of Representatives were censured.                                                                                                           

Root Hog and Die- a common American catch-phrase dating from well before 1834. Coming from the early colonial practice of turning pigs loose in the woods to fend for themselves, the term is an idiomatic expression for self-reliance.  

Booker T. Washington- was the dominant figure in the African American community in the United States from 1890 to 1915. Representing the last generation of black leaders born in slavery, and speaking for those blacks who had remained in the New South Washington received national prominence for his Atlanta Address of 1895.                                                                                         Plessey v. Ferguson- case in which Plessey, an old black shoemaker, sat in the "white" car on a train in Louisiana.  He got fined, and so the case eventually ended up in the Supreme Court which decided that it was constitutional to have "separate but equal" facilities for blacks and whites.  This had a major impact on segregation and later, the civil rights movement.                          

WEB Dubois- Noted black historian, pan-Africanist, who spent his life enhancing the position of his race in the United States.  Wrote several books and articles that strongly disagreed with Booker T. Washington's position that African-Americans need to subordinate themselves to the white race. 

John D. Rockefeller- cunning business man; unified the entire oil business into "Standard Oil" (1870). A ruthless organizer. Used Horizontal Integration.

Jane Addams, Hull House - Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class. In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U.S., to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English.

Knights of Labor - all-inclusive, blue collar labor organization started in 1869. The membership peaked in 1886, under Terence V. Powderly. The Knights aided various strikes, however, failure in the Missouri Pacific strike in 1886 and violence by strikers, including the Haymarket Square riot, led to disputes between the craft unionists and the advocates of all-inclusive unionism. With the additional problems of an autocratic structure, mismanagement, further unsuccessful strikes, and the emergence of the American Federation of Labor in 1886 under Samuel Gompers the organization quickly shrank from its 1886 peak. Goals: an 8-hour day, the abolition of child labor, equal pay, the elimination of private banks. Women, black workers and employers were welcomed, and bankers, lawyers, gamblers, and stockholders excluded.  

Unit VII Terms
1. Bland Allison Act- By Richards P. Bland. Provided for liberal coinage of silver. The more conservative Senate toned down the House proposal and with the support of Senator William B. Allison agreed on the terms of what became this act. US Treasury was instructed to purchase between $2 million and $4 million worth of silver each month from the western mines. The silver was to be purchased at market rates, not at a predetermined ratio pegged to the value of gold. The metal was to be minted into silver dollars as legal tender.

2. Crime of ’73- Refers to the omission of the standard silver dollar from the coinage law in 1873. Congress had de-monetized silver, thus tying the nation's monetary system firmly to gold standard. This was labeled the "Crime of '73" by western mining interests and debtors who wanted silver in circulation. Made rich richer and poor poorer.

3. Farmers’ Alliances- (Civil War residual North, South, and Black). In 1890, the 3 merge and form People’s Party, but change name to People’s Populist Party. Sought to ameliorate debt, poverty, and low crop prices by educating and mobilizing rural men and women, engaging in cooperative economic organizing, and asserting their power in electoral politics.

4. Panic of 1893 -Panic of 1893- Caused by dramatic growth of federal deficit, withdrawal of British investments from American market and the outward transfer of gold, and loss of business confidence. 20% of work force was eventually unemployed. Lasted 4 years. Recovers due to gold strike in Alaska and war preparations. 5. Haymarket Square Riot- 1886. Violent confrontation between police and labor protesters in Chicago that dramatized labor movement's struggle for recognition. Radical unionists had called a mass meeting in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality in a strike action. A bomb was thrown into the crowd, killing seven policemen and injuring 60 others. Police and workers fired on each other. Public demand for action led to the arrest of eight anarchists.  

6. Pullman Strike -Pullman Strike- Eugene V. Debs’ American Railway Union struck the Pullman Palace Car Co. in Chicago over wage cuts and job losses. President Cleveland broke the violence strike with federal troops. Popular opinion deplored violence and militant labor tactics. 7. William J. Bryan- Presidential candidate elected by both Democrats and Populists (but with different VPs). Pretended to be a reporter of Republican convention and saw that he needed to run on silver platform.   

8. Lochner v. NY- NY said that bakers could only work a certain amount of hours. Supreme Court said that the state can’t interfere with interstate commerce and that NY was being unconstitutional. Employees allowed to work as much as they want.

9. Grangers- People who printed pamphlets that said how to farm better. Group of agrarian organizations who worked to increase political and economic power of farmers. Died out and were replaced by Farmer’s Alliance.

10. Munn v. Illinois— court rejected railroads appeal and upheld Illinois law setting a maximum rate for storage of grain. Said that states are allowed to control the rates of the railroads.

11. Populists- Southern & Western farmers who tried to reform politics. Platform was currency reform (16-1), direct election of senators, initiative/referendum, sub-treasury program/ nationalize railroad, income tax, and legalize unions.

12. Tariffs 1890, 1894, 1909,1913
• Tariff 1890- aka McKinley Tariff, protective, rate @ 48.4%; contributed to Panic of 1893
• T. of 1894- aka Revenue Act or Wilson-Gorman Tariff; reduced McKinley Tariff, est. 2% income tax; also led to 16th Amendment- right for Congress to tax income
• T. of 1909- aka Payne-Aldrich Tariff; signed/promoted by Taft; brought back high rates of McKinley Tariff
• T. of 1913- aka Underwood-Simmons Act; reimposed income tax, lowered 1909 tariff down to 29%--all of these were in reaction to the McKinley Tariff; period of indecision b/c people. wanted to protect Amer. industry (high tariff), but US government needed money (low tariff)

13. a)Knights of Labor
• Established 1869
• Militant organization seeking solutions to labor problems • Allowed skilled and unskilled workers (along with women and blacks) to join • Wanted an eight hour work day, termination of child labor, equal pay for equal work, and the elimination of private banks • Under Terrence Powderly’s leadership, the Knights reached membership of over 700,000 • Downfall caused by emergence of the AFL, mismanagement, and financial losses from unsuccessful strikes

b) AFL (American Federation of Labor)
• 1886
• Combination of national craft unions representing labor interests in wages, hours, and safety • Individuals were members of their local union, which in turn, were members of the AFL • Rather than revolutionary changes, they sought a better working life; their philosophy was “pure and simple unionism” • First president was Samuel Gompers

14. Eugene V. Debs
• 1855-1926
• Became president of American Railway Union in 1893
• Led successful strikes against the Great Northern Railway and against the Pullman Palace Car Company • Was a founder of the Social Democratic Party
• Ran for president as a Socialist candidate five times between 1900-1920  

15. Cross of Gold
• 1896

• Address given by William Jennings Bryan, the Democratic presidential nominee, during the national convention of the Democratic Party • The speech criticized the gold standard and supported the coinage of silver • Bryan’s beliefs were popular with debt-ridden farmers

• The last words of his speech, and the most famous were, “You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold”

16. Pragmatism
• The philosophy that practical consequences are the criteria of knowledge and meaning and value

17. New Manifest Destiny
• Promoted primarily by industrial interests
• Goal was acquisition of: raw materials, markets for surplus goods, access to coaling stations and bases for navy and merchant ships • Expansion outside North America
• Usually influenced by patriotic and nationalist concerns • Racial issues often encouraged expansion (the “White Man’s Burden”)  
18. Alfred T. Mahan - educated at the U.S. Naval Academy and served as a Union naval officer during the Civil War. his highly influential writings made Mahan one of the leading spokesmen for the age of imperialism. He downplayed the philanthropic side of overseas involvement and concentrated on harsh political realities. According to his analysis of history, the great powers were those that maintained strong navies and merchant marines and inferred a rationale for American acquisition of port facilities throughout the world.. He urged the United States forward in its naval building programs. Mahan wrote at the time of a great international arms race. He exerted a major impact on Theodore Roosevelt, as well as upon leaders in Britain, Japan and Germany.

19. Deplume letter - On February 9, 1898, a letter Enrique Duruy de Loma had written to a government official in Havana was published in the American press. The private correspondence labeled President McKinley as “a low politician” and a man who was weak and catered to the rabble. Many Americans probably shared those views, but were outraged when they were voiced by a foreign official. War fever began its spread throughout the country.

20.USS Maine - a 19th-century ship of the United States Navy. On February 15, 1898, the Maine exploded, killing 260 men aboard. Public opinion in the United States, urged on by the yellow press, assumed that Spain had plotted the treachery. Cries of “Remember the Maine, To Hell with Spain” were heard throughout the country and war fever increased. Congress responded by appropriating $50 million for military preparedness. A navy court of inquiry concluded on March 28 that the explosion had been caused by an external source, probably a mine.1 Spain was blamed, and President McKinley requested a declaration of war and Congress responded affirmatively on April 25.  

21. Teller Amendment-In order to reassure anti-imperialist elements on the eve of declaring war on Spain, Senator Henry M. Teller of Colorado proposed the amendment to ensure that the United States would not establish permanent control over Cuba following the cessation of hostilities with Spain. It placed a condition of the United States military in Cuba. According to the clause, the U.S. could not annex Cuba but only leave "control of the island to its people."

22. Treaty of Paris 1898 – signed on Dec 10, 1898 and brought an end to the Spanish-American War. Cuba became independent of Spain; Puerto Rico and possessions in the West Indies were surrendered; Guam was given to the US; Philippines were given to the US for $20 mil. This peace treaty brought an end to the Spanish Empire in the Americas and marked the beginning of the US as a world power.

23. Emilio Aguinaldo – in 1896, Aguinaldo organized a Filipino independence movement to drive out Spain. In 1898, with arms supplied by US admiral George Dewey, he captured Philippines’ main island Luzon. Aguinaldo declared Filipino independence when Spain surrendered, and he drafted a democratic constitution. When the peace treaty of 1898 ceded his country to the US, he led a rebel force to attack Manila, where the US base of operations was located. His army was crushed.  

24. a) Boxer Rebellion – led by the Boxers, a fanatical anti-foreign secret society in China. They killed thousands of foreigners and Chinese Christians. In June of 1900, the Boxers occupied Beijing, the capital of China, and besieged foreign legations. US sent 2500 soldiers to an international army that crushed the rebellion. This defeat further weakened China’s government. b) Open Door Notes – issued by US Secretary of State John Hay in 1900; it reaffirmed the principle of open trade in China for all nations and announced America’s determination to preserve China’s territorial and administrative integrity. China remained open to US business and Christian missionaries. In the 1930s when Japanese expansionism menaced China, Hay’s policy helped shape American response. 25. Roosevelt Corollary – Due to huge debts in Dominican Republic in 1904, several European nations threatened to invade the country. Roosevelt believed that if any nation intervened, it should be the US. He declared in December of that same year that “wrongdoing” by any Latin American nation will give the US the right to intervene. The Roosevelt administration took over Dry’s customs service for 2 years and managed its foreign debt.

1904, furthered Monroe Doctrine; stated US had
right to intervene/stabilize Latin Amer. countries & Caribbean (Yankee Lake); strongly tells EU that they can’t intervene

26. Pan American Congress-represents a movement toward commercial, social, economic, military, and political cooperation among the nations of North, Central, and South America.

27. Valerian Wyler- General in the Spanish army, he moved many Cubans into the concentration camps

28. Yellow Journalism-Type of journalism that uses more eye-catching news instead of legitimate news. Journalists were called muckrakers. Example is McClure's magazine

29. Platt Amendment - 1901, treaty with Cuba and US detailing future relations between the two; said that Cuba could have their independence but if that the US had the right to intervene if Cuba ever jeopardizes their country. Also allowed US to est. naval bases their and keep Guantanamo Bay.

30. Insular Cases-Downs v Bidwell-Declared that people in other countries taken by the U.S. still had to pay the tariffs  
31. Social Gospel - a movement within Protestantism to right contemporary social wrongs was advocated by Jane Addams and launched in 1870s by Washington Gladden; who urged the creation of settlement houses and better health and education services to accommodate the new immigrants. New religions appeared: Salvation Army, Mary Baker Eddy’s Church of Christian Science in 1879, and act.  

32. Settlement houses - idea that was created by Jane Addams. Addams bought a dilapidated mansion in Chicago (1889) and repaired it into an immigrant social center, in hopes of upgrading the filthy and overcrowded housing. The center was complete with plays, sponsored art projects, English classes, civics, cooking, and dress making, plus encouragement of the preservation of traditional crafts. By 1895 at least 50 settlement houses had opened in cities across the nation led mainly by women who later served as state and local government officials such as Florence Kelley, who became the chief factory inspector for Illinois in 1893 after working at the Hull House.

33. Ashcan School - A group of New York painters, dubbed the “Ashcan School”, portrayed the harshness as well as the vitality of slum life. Wisconsin-born photographer Lewis Hine (images of immigrants and factory laborers). Hine photographed for the Child Labor Committee child workers with stunted bodies and worn expressions; which ultimately built support for the campaign to outlaw child labor. Another artist was John Sloan, who created Sunday, Women Drying Their Hair.

34. Northern Securities (Co.) - railroad corporation made by J.P. Morgan. After President Roosevelt issued the Anti-Trust Policy (1902), made to restore free competition and monopolistic practices, Attorney General P.C Knox brought the first suit against Northern Securities then Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Co. The Roosevelt administration filed 43 other anti-trust lawsuits, (Standard Oil was broken up and American Tobacco Company was reorganized to be less monopolistic). By the end of Roosevelt’s term (1909) he brought indictments against 25 monopolies.

35. Initiative, referendum, and recall l – Populist reforms. Initiative – a petition signed by enough registered voters can force a public vote on the proposed issue. Referendum – a direct popular vote on a proposed law/constitutional amendment where the people are asked to either accept or reject the proposal. Recall – Where voters can oust an elected official before his official term has ended.  

36. Pinchot-Ballinger controversy: About conservation and federally protected lands. Event contributed to the split of the Republican Party before the 1912 Presidential Election. Taft has Ballinger be chief forester. States that Taft can't sell federally protected land but is ignored. Ted Roosevelt was notified by Ballinger when returns to the states

37. Hepburn Rail Road Regulation Act-1908 - 2nd of railroad acts, Elkins Act 1st. Size of ICC increased whose decisions were rarely overturned, was an effective change for them. Eliminates the supreme court from hearing similar cases (freezed up courts)& Act 1908: Inheritance taxes which upset the people(most were conservative republicans). As a result the public sells land and stock at a higher price to pay off mortgages. US steel was also allowed to buy coal from Tennessee

38. Robert LaFollott ---was the governor of Wisconsin that led the way for many Progressive state leaders. The state under his leadership made plans for direct primary elections, progressive taxation, and rail regulation

39. Dollar Diplomacy - US attempt to futher its foreign policy toward Latin American and East Asia by using economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries. Name from having the money pay toward warlike figures without the use of violence.

40. Election of 1912- Wilson (Democrat) beat Roosevelt (Progressive/ Bull Moose party), Taft (Republican) and Debs (Socialist). The issues were the economy and growing conflict in Europe. First election to hold primaries/conventions. Considered by some to be first modern election. First time in history where third-party candidate got 2nd place.

41. New Freedom vs. New Nationalism- Woodrow Wilson believed that monopolies had to be broken up and that the government must regulate business. He believed in competition, and called his economic plan "New Freedom." It was about small businesses, limiting corporate America, and free markets. Roosevelt believed in “New nationalism,” which would increase federal government and encourage business growth/reform. Both used their ideologies in election of 1912.

42. Underwood Tariff-1913- Lowered tariffs on hundreds of items that could be produced more cheaply in the U.S. than abroad. First major reductive tariff since 1860.

43. Federal Reserve Act- Regulated banking to help small banks stay in business. A compromise between al banks to control and maintain money to prevent depression. A move away from laissez-faire policies, it was passed by Wilson. Wilson’s most important domestic reform.

44. Clayton Anti-Trust Act of 1914 -
• Supplemented and interpreted the Sherman Anti Trust Act; enforced by Wilson • Stock ownership by a corporation in a competing corporation was prohibited: same persons could not manage a competing corporations • Price Discrimination and exclusive contracts which reduced competition were prohibited • Labor Unions and agricultural organizations were not considered conspiracies to restrain trade- Difference from Sherman Anti Trust Act • Greater governmental control over nation’s finances

45. Federal Trade Commission of 1914 -
• Created by Wilson to prohibit all unfair trade practices without defining them • Empowered to issue cease and desist orders to corporations to stop actions considered to be in restraint of trade and to bring suit in the courts if the orders were not obeyed • Firms could also contest the orders in court. Under the previous antitrust legislation, the government could act against corporations only by bringing suit.

46. 17th, 18th, 19th Amendments -
• 17th Amendment (1913) – allowed direct election of senators; enacted by progressive William Taft • 18th Amendment (1919) – prohibited the general manufacture, sale, and use of alcoholic beverages; Many people resented that the government interfered in private matters but supported by the Prohibition Movement  

• 19th Amendment (1920) – extends voting rights to women; Success of the feminist movement

47.Carrie C. Catt -
• Known for women’s rights movements and suffrage movement • Head of field organizing the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) in 1895 and in 1900; Founder of International Woman Suffrage Association • Key in enacting the 19th Amendment

48. Theodore Veblen – Anti-Capitalist author and activist of the early 1900s  
49. Muckrakers- Group of writers in early 1900s who exposed social and political evils in US. Wrote about problems such as child labor, prostitution, racial discrimination, and corruption in business and government. In 1906, President Theodore Roosevelt labeled them muckrakers because he felt they were concerned only with turning up filth. But these writers increased public awareness of social problems and forced government and business to work to solve them. Helped prepare the way for many reforms in US.

50. Coal strike (1902)- By the United Mine Workers of America in coal fields in eastern Pennsylvania. Threatened to shut down winter fuel supply to all major cities. President Roosevelt became involved and set up a fact-finding commission that suspended the strike. Strike never resumed since miners received more pay for fewer hours. Owners got a higher price for coal and didn’t recognize the union as a bargaining agent. First labor episode in which the federal government intervened as a neutral arbitrator.

51. City Manager form of government – A form of government characterized by a committee of leaders rather than one mayor.  
52. Mann-Elkins Act – (1910) A Progressive reform signed by Taft. Extended the authority of the Interstate Commerce Commission, giving it more regulatory power. This meant that they were able to prosecute its own inquiries into violations of its regulations.

53. Herbert Croly- Editor who wrote The Promise of American Life about government authority being used to balance economic activity. This was the basis for Theodore Roosevelt's "New Nationalism."  

54. Keating-Owen Act Child Labor Act – (1916) Enacted by Congress, prohibited the interstate sale of goods manufactured by children. It expanded on the importance of Congress’s task of regulating interstate commerce. Signed into law by Wilson but later ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.

Unit VIII Terms

1. Victoriano Huerta- A Mexican general turned military dictator and full-blooded Indian. In 1913 Huerta assassinated self-declared progressive revolutionist, Francisco I. Madero (Who overthrew the dictator Porfirio Diaz in 1911 during the Mexican Revolution [1910] ). Wilson wanted Huerta to hold democratic elections and adopt a constitutional government. Huerta refused and Wilson invaded Mexico with troops at Vera Cruz in 1914.

2. Francisco “Poncho” Villa- former general who opposed Huerta’s Constitutionalist opponent, Venustiano Carranza. Villa wanted American interventions (so Carranza could be undermined) and Villa then shot 16 Americans on a train in N. Mexico on January 1916 and burned the border town of Columbus, New Mexico in March 1916, killing 19 people. Carranza reluctantly let U.S. troops enter Mexico to capture Villa. 6000 army troops under General John J. Pershing crossed the Rio Grande on March 18 and failed to find Villa; becoming an occupational army until Wilson withdrew them in January 1917.

3. U-boat-torpedo-equipped submarines. Germany controlled the ocean depths with these. In February 1915 Berlin proclaimed the waters around Great Britain a war zone and warned off all ships. -->Wilson responded that Germany would be held strictly accountable for any loss of U.S. ships or lives.1917 Germany announced unrestricted submarine warfare.

4. Sussex-French passenger ship that was almost sunk by a German submarine on March 24, 1916 in the English Channel, injuring several Americans. Wilson threatened to break diplomatic relations –Sussex Pledge—unless Germany ceased all surprise submarine attacks on all shipping, whether belligerent or neutral, armed, or unarmed.)  Berlin (Germany) in May pledged not to attack merchant vessels without warning, as long as Great Britain observed “the rules of international law”. Wilson ignored this qualification and announced Germany’s acceptance of American demands and the crisis eased.

5. Creel Committee-(Committee on Public Information)-headed by journalist George Creel, was formed by Wilson in April 1917.  Creel established a successful system of voluntary censorship of the press, and organized about 150,000000 paid and volunteer writers, lecturers, artists, and other professionals in a propaganda campaign to build support for the American cause. Stressed Democracy and Anti-German ideas; carry out Wilson’s “righteousness and lofty ideals”. Also the CPI set up volunteer Liberty Leagues in every community, urging member and citizens to spy on their neighbors (esp. those with foreign names) and report any suspicious words or actions to the Justice Department.

6. War Industries Board- controlled industrial sector. Created in July 1916 by the Council of National Defense (1916) and Bernard Baruch was in charge of WIB (a South Carolinian of German-Jewish Origins; head of the Board in March 1918). Controlled raw materials; production efficiency; (esp. food) prices; provided weapons, equipment, and supplies to the military, and labor relations. A) Mobilization-of economy =huge task, Industry in chaos

B) Lever Act of 1917- gave the president broad control over the production, price, and distribution of food and fuel  --give up food( voluntary programs such as “ Wheatless Mondays” and “Meatless Tuesday”), plant VICTORY gardens (Hosmer’s mum) rations— C) Prices set high to encourage production of wheat, pork, and other farm products.

7. Henry Cabot Lodge - a representative of the Republican Party's conservative wing, opposed the progressivism of Woodrow Wilson by fighting for high protective tariffs and the gold standard. During World War I, Lodge backed entry into the war, but was sharply critical of Wilson's prosecution of the effort. In the congressional elections of 1918, the Republicans gained control of both the House and the Senate; Lodge became the chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations and Senate Majority Leader. From his positions of power, he led the fight against ratification of the Treaty of Versailles, largely because of its inclusion of provisions for the League of Nations. Lodge’s motivations appear to have been a combination of deeply held concerns about protecting American interests and an abiding hatred of the president.

8.Election of 1916- took place while Europe was embroiled in World War I. Public sentiment in the still neutral United States leaned towards the British and French (allied) forces, due to the harsh treatment of civilians by the German Army. However, despite their sympathy with the allied forces most American voters wanted to avoid involvement in the war, and preferred to continue a policy of neutrality. The campaign pitted incumbent President Woodrow Wilson, the Democratic candidate, against Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes, the Republican candidate. After a hard-fought contest, Wilson defeated Hughes by a narrow margin. Wilson was helped by his campaign slogan "He kept us out of war"

9. Versailles-Treaty of Versailles 1919- one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. The three most important politicians there were David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau and Woodrow Wilson. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial required Germany to accept sole responsibility for causing the war and to disarm, make substantial territorial concessions and pay reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers.

10. Espionage Act (and Supreme Court Cases)- a United States federal law passed shortly after entering World War I, on June 15, 1917, which made it a crime for a person To convey information with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the armed forces of the United States or to promote the success of its enemies, and To convey false reports or false statements with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the military or naval forces of the United States or to promote the success of its enemies. The basic idea was to stop citizens from spying or interfering with military actions during World War I. The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled the Act was constitutional in Schenck v. United States (1919). The law vastly extended the meaning of the term to include also the openly carried expressing of political opinions. The legislation was passed at the urging of President Woodrow Wilson, who feared any anti-war mobilization constituted a real threat to the American war effort.

11. Venustiano Carranza- was a Mexican politician, warlord and general. Had a rivalry with Pancho Villa and Emilano Zapata over control of Mexico. Had Woodrow Wilson’s support and acknowledgment as president of Mexico.

12. Lusitania- was sunk off the Irish coast by a German submarine on May 7, 1915. In the sinking, 1,195 persons lost their lives, of whom 128 were U.S. citizens. The considerable sympathy for Germany that had previously existed in the United States to a large extent disappeared, and there were demands from many for an immediate declaration of war. President Wilson chose the course of diplomacy and sent Germany a strong note asking for “reparation so far as reparation is possible.” Germany refused to accept responsibility for the act in an argumentative reply, but issued secret orders to submarine commanders not to attack passenger ships without warning. After prolonged negotiations, Germany finally conceded its liability for the sinking of the Lusitania and agreed to make reparations and to discontinue sinking passenger ships without warning. The immediate crisis between the United States and Germany subsided. The incident, however, contributed to the rise of American sentiment for the entry of the United States into World War I.

13. Zimmermann Telegram or papers- a telegram by German foreign secretary to the German minister in Mexico. The Germans proposed that, in the event of a war between the US and Germany, Mexico should declare war on the US so that the US would have to fight a two front war. After the war, Mexican territories of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona would be returned to Mexico. This showed that the Germans are unreliable and increased the anti-German sentiment in the US.  Americans were convinced that war with Germany was necessary. 

14. Minute Men- The Four-minute men (they had to give four minute speeches) were a virtual army of volunteers organized by President Wilson to give speeches on topics proposed by the Committee of Public Information. They talked about the war effort in between movie reels so that audiences are pro-war.

15. Bernard Baruch- In 1918, Wilson appointed Baruch to head the War Industry Board.  The WIB allocated raw materials, standardized manufactured products, instituted strict production and purchasing controls, and paid high prices to businesses for their products.  The WIB is just one of the many government regulated industries during the war.  This shows how the government became more involved in the citizens’ lives even though after the war these industries are going to be removed.  

16. Charles E. Hughes- a Supreme Court Associate Justice who ran as the Republican candidate for president in 1916 against Wilson but failed. He was later appointed by Harding as Secretary of State. He also convened the Washington Conference in 1921, where international representatives met and talked about naval limitations and Asian affairs.

17. Fourteen Points – a peacemaking plan proposed by Wilson in 1918 to Congress. The plan called for a peace without victory, so that a fair and stable international situation in the postwar world would insure lasting peace. Some of the points include freedom of the seas, no secret treaties, free trade, arms reduction, self-determination and most importantly, a league of nations.  Many Europeans were not happy with the “peace without victory” because they wanted to punish Germany.  Americans just didn’t want the US to be involved in another European war.

18. "irreconcilables” – a term for the senators who vehemently opposed the Treaty of Versailles.  This group was headed by Senators Hiram Johnson and William Borah, who refused the treaty in any way. There were only about a dozen irreconcilables. This showed that the Senate was divided and no one unanimously supported Wilson’s Treaty of Versailles

19. Strong Reservationists-a response to Wilson’s 14 points, led by Republican Senator Lodge. He demanded 14 amendments to be made as a condition of their support. Strong Reservationists especially objected Article X (10) of the treaty, which talked about the League of Nations and pledged each member nation to preserve the political independence and territorial integrity of all other members. SRs believed that this limited America’s sovereignty and infringed on Congress’s constitutional power to declare war. If Wilson had accepted Lodge’s demands, the Senate probably would have ratified the Versailles treaty.

20. Red Scare- The Post-war years of 1919 and 1920 saw antiradical hysteria among Americans. Prior to this time, Communists (called “reds” because of their red flag) had created a revolution in Russia. Because workers were behind this movement, Americans believed that their own unions could possibly lead to Communism. Anxiety and paranoia led to the Palmer Raids, in which 600 suspected “Communists” were deported. Strikes, bombings, and other violence also resulted. Welfare capitalism came about as well, improving some conditions of workers so that they were less likely to participate in unions.

21. “Normalcy” – meaning normality. Republican Warren G Harding used this term to appeal to his voters in the election of 1920, promising a return to traditional American values and shifting the focus back to America while turning away from European entanglements. Many Americans supported Harding, giving him 60% of the popular vote.

22.Andrew Mellon-cabinet member during both Harding and Coolidge’s presidencies. As Treasury Secretary, Mellon promoted the “trickle-down theory” of prosperity. He urged Congress to lower income-tax rates for the wealthy, believing that tax cuts would encourage the rich to invest in businesses which would provide more jobs and ultimately benefit everyone. This theory proved to be incorrect as the wealthy gained even more benefits while the poor remained poor.

23. John T. Scopes- – a high school teacher in Dayton, Tennessee who was encouraged to summarize Darwin’s theory to a science class. The legislature in Tennessee prohibited the teaching of evolution, and Scopes was arrested. Although Scopes was found guilty, this trial exposed the ridicule of Fundamentalism, belief in the Bible’s literal truth.

24. Washington Conference- Washington Conference – President Harding’s most notable achievement. In 1921, Secretary of State Hughes called for a conference in Washington to address the issue of a dangerous and costly naval-arms race between the US, Great Britain, and Japan. In the 5 Power Treaty, these three nations along with Italy and France agreed to stop building battleships for 10 years. In the 4 Power Treaty, US and Japan pledged to respect each other’s territorial holdings in the Pacific and promised to confer in case of attack (although this failed to prevent war).  Finally, in the 9 Power Treaty, both China’s independence and the Open Door policy were reinforced.  

25. Dawes Plan- Dawes Plan (1924)-  an unsuccessful attempt to collection German war reparations from WWI and to help recover Germany’s economic and Infrastructure, intended for Germany to make large annual payments but Germany could not keep up with these so was replaced by the Young Plan of 1929.

26. Immigration Act of 1921,1923- Immigration Act of 1921- aka the Emergency Immigration/Quota Act, limited annual amount of immigrants the US would take, allowed no more than 3% of a country’s population; 1924- brought the percentage down to 2%  

27. McNary-Haugen Bill- during WWI farmers had high productivity and prices, after the war the farmers had huge surpluses and debts as a result, the government wanted to enact farm relief, farm board was to be made which subsidized products which was what the Populists wanted, vetoed by Coolidge

28. Lost Generation- Lost Generation- term used to describe the disillusionment American writers experienced after WWI 
29."Great Crash"- referenced the great stock market crash of 1929, was also a book by John Kenneth Galbraith detailing the rampant speculation that led to the crash
30. Harlem Renaissance- movement in African American intellectual life that was centered around the Harlem neighborhood in NY, for one of the first times black artists were proud of their cultures.

31.Hawley-Smoot Tariff- Congressional compromise serving special interest, it raised duties on agricultural and manufactured imports. It may have contributed to the spread of the international depression. Prevented foreign countries from trading in the US, which furthered worldwide economic depression and increased tension between US and Europe.

32. Bonus Army- 1932 - Facing the financial crisis of the Depression, WW I veterans tried to pressure Congress to pay them their retirement bonuses early. Congress considered a bill authorizing immediate assurance of $2.4 billion, but it was not approved. Angry veterans marched on Washington, D.C., and Hoover called in the army to get the veterans out of there. As a result, Hoover became extremely unpopular.

33.Palmer Raid- Palmer raids in 33 cities broke into meeting halls and homes without warrants. 4,000 "Communists" were jailed, some were deported. Showed America’s their willingness to sacrifice democracy/civil liberties for the sake of their hysteria of communists.

34.Teapot Dome- 1929 - The Naval strategic oil reserve at Elk Hills, also known as "Teapot Dome" was taken out of the Navy's control and placed in the hands of the Department of the Interior, which leased the land to oil companies. Several Cabinet members received huge payments as bribes. Due to the investigation, Daugherty, Denky, and Fall were forced to resign. Most widely known scandal of Harding’s administration after his death.

35. Kellogg-Briand Pact- "Pact of Paris" or "Treaty for the Renunciation of War," it made war illegal as a tool of national policy, allowing only defensive war. The Treaty was generally believed to be useless. Designed to discourage war but became useless. France was angered at the US as a result.

36. Sacco and Vanzetti- Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree, Mass. The trial lasted from 1920-1927. Convicted on circumstantial evidence, many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities. Showed America’s hypocrisy of fighting for democracy yet not implementing it at home. Also showed America’s intense hysteria of communists and immigrants and anything that wasn’t stereotypically ‘American.’

37.H.L. Mencken- One of the most influential American writers in the first half of the 20th century

Unit IX Terms

1st 100 Days- Duration of Roosevelt's first 100 days where the government implemented most of the major programs associated with the New Deal  
Fireside Chat- When Roosevelt was heard over the radio to reassure the public that the banks were once again secure. Americans all believed him and a week later more than 60 million individuals had redeposited their savings  

Francis E. Townsend- One of several "extremists" who agrees with Long's ideas of taking money from the rich. He also believed that the elderly should quit their jobs and allow the youth of America the opportunity to work while they will be able to receive money (retirement fund)  

Huey P. Long- Governor and senator of Louisiana which had been illegal at the time. Known as one of several "extremists". Individual to use the term 'share our wealth' which described his desire to take money from the rich and give to those in need of the money  

2nd 100 Days- In the duration of Roosevelt's term during the summer of 1935. Called this for the importance of legislation passed in similar to the 1st 100 days. In this period congress broadened powers of the NLRB, democratized unions, and punished businesses with anti-union policies. they also created the Social Security Administration which provided retirement benefits for workers and increased taxes on wealthy individuals  

"soak the rich"- FDR’s plan to raise taxes for the rich to help the economy (Wealth Tax Act 1935). The rich would have to pay a 75% tax. Made FDR popular.  
Social Security Act of 1935- used withheld money from payrolls to provide aid for the unemployed, industrial accident workers, and young mothers; principle for government responsibility for social welfare.  

Election of 36- Republicans nominate Alf Landon. Democrats nominate Frederick Roosevelt. Roosevelt campaigned for New Deal, Landon against it. Roosevelt is able to acquire black, labor, and southern votes. Roosevelt wins on a landslide (98.49% of electoral vote). Vermont and Maine are only states that vote Republican and “As goes Maine” theory fails.  

Work Progress Administration-- Harry Hopkins; provide work for the unemployed and construct public works. The largest New Deal agency, employing millions to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads, and operated large arts, drama, media, and literacy projects. It fed children and redistributed food, clothing, and housing. Unemployment went down.  

Congress of Industrial Organizations- (CIO) Created by John L. Lewis for unskilled labor, organized a "Sit-down strike" against GM to work for recognition.  
Purge- FDR urged voters to reject Chandler who voted against his court packing plan. America immediately connected this with Stalin’s purge of his own followers.

Bank Holiday- FDR closed every bank in the country. They would remain closed until Department of the Treasury officials could inspect each institution's ledgers. Banks in viable financial condition would be primed with Treasury money and permitted to do business again. Those found in marginal condition were kept closed until they could be restored to a sound footing. Numerous banks that had been poorly run remained closed forever. Also enacted the Glass Steagall Act which prohibited banks to invest in stock market by schemes of chance, and the FDIC.  

NRA- National Recovery Administration. Most important piece of legislation. Businesses will be allowed to set prices and rates without violating the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, but they will have to give workers minimum wage ($.25) and maximum hours (44 hrs), people working could form labor unions and businesses have to make collective bargains with them, and no child labor.   

AAA- restricted agricultural production in the New Deal era by paying farmers to reduce crop area. Its purpose was to reduce crop surplus so as to effectively raise the value of crops, thereby giving farmers relative stability again. The farmers were paid subsidies by the federal government for letting a portion of their fields lay fallow. The money for these subsidies was generated through an exclusive tax on companies who processed farm products.

PWA- Public Works Administration. Gives work to young men (makeshift work), just so government could provide money.  It concentrated on the construction of large-scale public works such as dams and bridges, with the goal of providing employment, stabilize purchasing power, and contribute to a revival of American industry. Most of the spending came in two waves in 1933-35, and again in 1938. The PWA was closed down in 1939.The PWA spent over $6 billion, and helped to push industry back toward pre-Depression levels. It lowered unemployment and created an infrastructure that generated local pride in the 1930s and remains vital seven decades later.

Section 7a- businesses could set prices and rates as long as workers could form labor unions and receive collective bargaining.  
FDIC- Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. The government promised to that if something happened to someone’s money they would get paid back.  

Father Charles Coughlin- extremist priest that attacked FDR’s New Deal. He demanded more silver in order to fix the depression.     
Public Utility Holding Company Act- FDR prohibits businesses to buy anything over a second level holding company. FDR’s way to show that he didn’t like business.

Wagner Act-Also known as National Labor Relations Act of 1935. Established rights of employees to organize, join, or aid labor unions and to participate in collective bargaining through their representatives. Also authorized unions to take "concerted action" for these purposes (workers could lawfully strike and take other peaceful action as a way of placing pressure on an employer). Most important piece of labor legislation enacted in US history. Only piece of legislation dedicated strictly to labor unions.  

Court-packing plan- In February 1937 President Franklin D. Roosevelt sent a bill to Congress to change the composition of the federal judiciary. This “court packing bill” was FDR's attempt to expand the membership of the Supreme Court so that he could nominate justices who would uphold the constitutionality of New Deal legislation. The court packing struggle constitutes a critical episode in Roosevelt's presidency and one of the bitterest clashes between the judiciary and the executive in American history.  

Strikes – Because labor unions are legal due to section 7a and the Wagner Act, strikes form. This time strikes are over recognition and not over wages. These were sit in strikes and didn’t end until WWII. Many of these strikes ended by military force.  

Roosevelt Recession- Recession of 1937-1938. A temporary reversal of the pre-war 1933 to 1941 economic recovery from the Great Depression in the US. Put millions of Americans back on the streets. Contributed to American people’s loss of confidence in the president and his New Deal policy.  

Good Neighbor Policy – By FDR. Idea that US won’t intervene with Latin America. Repeals Platt Amendment. Called “Good Neighbor Policy” because tried to improve relations. Centered on nonintervention and noninterference.  

Nye Committee – A committee established in April 1934 under the leadership of Senator Gerald Nye of North Dakota. To investigate the structure, activities, and profits of the munitions industry and its role in US entry into WWI. Failed to prove that arms manufacturers had conspired to begin the war or to force the US into it.  

Munich Conference – Conference held in Munich in September 1938. Leaders of Great Britain, France, and Italy agreed to allow Germany to annex certain areas of Czechoslovakia.  
Destroyers for bases deal – Roosevelt gave Britain 50 American destroyer ships in return for a 99-year lease on air & naval British bases in Newfoundland, Bermuda, and the Caribbean. Created to aid Britain to avoid war with Germany.  

Axis Alliance – Germany, Italy, and Japan. Formed as a result of Tripartite Pact that was signed in September 1940. Recognized German hegemony over most of continental Europe, Italian hegemony over the Mediterranean Sea, and Japanese hegemony over East Asia and the Pacific. Although the Axis partners never developed institutions to coordinate foreign or military policy, the Axis partners had two common interests: 1) territorial expansion and foundation of empires based on military conquest and the overthrow of the post-WWI international order and 2) the destruction or neutralization of Soviet Communism. Ultimately faced a defeat at end of war.  

Neutrality Acts – 1935: banned munitions exports to belligerents and restricted American travel on belligerent ships. 1936: banned loans to belligerents. 1937: extended these provisions to civil wars and gave president discretionary authority to restrict non-munitions sales to a "cash-and-carry" basis (belligerents had to pay in advance then export goods in their own ships). 1939: banned US ships from carrying goods or passengers to belligerent ports but allowed US to sell munitions. Congress repealed these acts in November 1941.  

Sudetenland – Historical region of northern Czech Republic along Polish border. Territory Germany demanded and seized in September 1938. Restored to Czechoslovakia in 1945.  
“Lend-lease” – US would provide supplies to Britain and they would have to pay US back in good and services after war was over. Changed the US from neutral to a nonbelligerent on Allied side.   
War Productions Board – Established in 1942 by FDR. Purpose was to regulate use of raw materials. To direct war production and the procurement of materials in WWII. Converted and expanded peacetime economy to maximum war production. Controlled assignment of priorities to deliveries of scarce materials and prohibited nonessential industrial activities. Limits consumer.  

War Bonds – Debt securities issued by government for purpose of financing military operations during times of war. Generated capital for government and made civilians feel involved in their national militaries. Useful as a means of controlling inflation in an over stimulated economy by removing money from circulation. Exhortations to buy war bonds are often accompanied with appeals to patriotism and conscience. Provided half of government income.  

Japanese-American Relocation – Japanese and Japanese-Americans were forced into concentration camps during WWII (Executive Order 9066). Lawsuits were subsequently filed by Japanese Americans who claimed that their civil rights as US citizens had been violated. Supreme Court steadfastly upheld the legality of the evacuations.  

D-Day & Second Front - Goal was to capture/liberate Paris. Opening of 2nd Front. Devastating but successful for Allies.  
Election of 1944 - Based on personality. FDR (Dem) vs. Dewey (Rep). Roosevelt got rid of Wallace and ran with Truman as VP. FDR wins with narrowest popular vote margin (53%) since 1916.  
Kamikaze - Any Japanese pilot in WWII who made deliberate suicidal crashes into enemy targets. Most kamikaze planes were ordinary fighter aircraft or light bombers, usually loaded with bombs or extra gasoline tanks before their suicidal dive. Such attacks sank 34 ships and damaged hundreds of others.  

Manhattan Project - US government research project that produced the first atomic bomb.  
OPA – Office of Price Administration. These books contained stamps and gave precise details of amount of certain types of food that you were allowed. Rationing insured that each person could get their fair share of items that were in short supply due to war effort and import reductions. In charge of rationing consumer goods during WWII. Held prices and wages steady.  

Koramatsu v. US – Koramatsu said that Executive Order 9066 (Japanese must be put into concentration camps) violated 5th amendment. Court upheld EO 9066, but was eventually overturned.  
Thomas E. Dewey – Governor of New York. Received the Republican presidential nomination in 1944 but was defeated by FDR. Nominated again in 1948 and was widely predicted to defeat Truman, but Truman retained the vote of farmers and labor and won.  

Hiroshima – City in Japan where atomic bomb was dropped on August 6, 1945. Japan was unwilling to surrender unconditionally after this, so Nagasaki was bombed on August 9th.  
Yalta Conference – Most important world conference. Big Three (Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin) discussed post-war Europe. Stalin said that Soviet Union will join war against Japan within 2-3 months of Hitler’s surrender. Germany would be divided into 4. Germany must pay Russia. Russia allowed to stay in Eastern Europe but has to help with Japan. Must hold free elections. Called for conference on world organization in April 1945.  

Taft-Hartley Act – US legislation that restricted labor unions. Allowed employees the right not to join unions. Required advance notice of a labor strike. Authorized an 80-day federal injunction when a strike threatened national health or safety. Narrowed definition of unfair labor practices, specified unfair union practices, restricted union political contributions, and required union officials to take an oath pledging they were not communists.  

Containment – By George F. Kennan. Strategic US foreign policy intended to check expansionist designs of Soviet Union through economic, military, diplomatic, and political means. Must do everything we can to contain communism and prevent further spread. Early application of this idea was with the Truman Doctrine.  

Truman Doctrine – Called for immediate economic and military aid to Greece (which was threatened by a communist insurrection) and to Turkey (which was under pressure from Soviet expansion in the Mediterranean). US will do everything to stop communism in Greece and Turkey. US sought to protect those countries from falling under Soviet influence after Britain announced that it could no longer give them aid. In response to Truman's message, Congress appropriated $400 million in aid.  

NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization. International military alliance created to defend Western Europe against a possible Soviet invasion. Designed to prevent spread of communism. Pledged that an attack against one signatory would be considered an attack against all.  

Berlin Blockade – International crises that arose from an attempt by Soviet Union to force the Allied powers (US, Britain, and France) to abandon their postwar jurisdictions in West Berlin. Soviets blockaded all surface transportation routes between Berlin and West Germany. US and Britain responded by supplying the city with food and other supplies by military air transport and airlifting out West Berlin exports (Berlin Airlift). An Allied embargo on exports from Eastern bloc forced Soviets to lift blockade after 11 months.  

Election of 1948 – Considered by most historians as greatest election upset in American history. Virtually every prediction indicated that Truman (Dem) would be defeated by Thomas E. Dewey (Rep). Truman won. Truman's surprise victory was the fifth consecutive win for Democratic Party in a presidential election. As a result, Democrats would regain control of both houses of Congress. Thus, Truman's election confirmed Democratic Party's status as nation's majority party.  

Alger Hiss – Former State Department official. Was convicted for being a communist who supplied classified American documents to Soviet Union. Convicted of perjury.  
Mao Tze-Tung – World's most prominent Chinese communist during 20th century. Overthrew Chiang Kai-Shek and the communists seized power of mainland China and established People’s Republic of China. Turned China into a world military power. His campaign to export communism made China a threat to the West and led to confrontations in Southeast Asia and Korea. Under Mao's rule, China endured a series of economic disasters and political terrorism.  

McCarthy-Army-Hearings – US Army accused Senator Joseph R. McCarthy of pressuring Army to give preferential treatment to former McCarthy aide G. David Schine. McCarthy claimed that the accusation was made in bad faith. A special committee was appointed to adjudicate these conflicting charges and the hearings opened on April 22, 1954. Hearings were televised and contributed significantly to McCarthy's subsequent decline in popularity.  

Brown v Board of Education – 1954. Thurgood Marshall challenged doctrine of “separate but equal” (Plessey v. Ferguson). Supreme Court ruled unanimously that racial segregation in public schools violated 14th Amendment. The court declared separate educational facilities to be inherently unequal. The Brown ruling was limited to public schools, but it was believed to imply that segregation wasn’t permissible in other public facilities. Guidelines for ending segregation were presented and school boards were advised to proceed "with all deliberate speed."  

Eisenhower Doctrine – Foreign policy pronouncement. Promised military and economic aid to anticommunist governments. US was prepared to use armed forces in Middle East against communist aggression. Under this doctrine, US marines entered Beirut, Lebanon to promote stability during a change of government.  

U-2 Incident – Confrontation between US and Soviet Union. On May 1, 1960, Soviet Union shot down a US U-2 reconnaissance plane and called the flight an "aggressive act." US denied Soviet claims that pilot F. Gary Powers had stated that his mission was to collect Soviet intelligence data. Nikita Khrushchev said that US must immediately flights over Soviet territory, apologize, and punish those responsible. Eisenhower agreed only to first stipulation and conference was adjourned.  

Uncle Joe Stalin – Soviet politician and dictator.
George Kennan – Career diplomat and Soviet expert. Warned that Soviet Union had no intention of living peacefully with US. Wrote Article X for Foreign Affair in which he called for a counter-force to Soviet pressures for purpose of “containing” communism.  

Marshall Plan – US-sponsored program to provide economic aid to European countries after WWII. Proposed by George Marshall in 1947 and authorized by Congress as the European Recovery Program. Provided almost $13 billion in grants and loans to 17 countries. Key factor in reviving their economies and stabilizing their political structures.   

Martin Luther King – African-American clergyman who advocated social change through non-violent means. Shaped American civil rights movement of 1950s and 1960s  
Sputnik – Soviet space satellite launched in October 1957. Created fear that US was falling behind technologically.  
Alfred C. Kinsey –  Kinsey is regarded by many to be the foremost pioneer in the quantitative study of human sexuality. From his roots studying marriage and sex to his quantitative studies on women's sexuality, Dr. Alfred Kinsey is a research pioneer in human sexuality.  

Levittown – Unincorporated community of southeast New York. Founded in 1947. Was a low-cost housing development for WWII veterans.  
New Frontier – Term used by John F. Kennedy to describe economic and social challenges facing the US. Kennedy maintained that, like Americans of frontier in 19th century, Americans of 20th century had to rise to new challenges, such as achieving equality of opportunity for all. Epitomized Kennedy's commitment to renewal and change.  

Bay of Pigs Invasion – Abortive invasion of Cuba directed by US CIA and carried out by Cuban exiles. Was intended to spark a rebellion that would topple Fidel Castro, whose communist regime was considered a threat to US interests in the region. Began with bombing of Cuban military bases. Rebellion never materialized, invasion force was quickly defeated, and more than 1,100 men were imprisoned. Result was a huge propaganda victory for Castro and a severe embarrassment for Kennedy’s administration.  

Lee Harvey Oswald – Assassinated Kennedy on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. Killed by Jack Ruby (nightclub owner) 2 days later. Investigation of murders concluded that Oswald acted alone in assassination.  

Great Society – President Lyndon Johnson’s domestic program. Would include a "war on poverty" and federal support for education, medical care for elderly, and legal protection for African Americans deprived of voting rights by state regulations. Also proposed a new department of housing and urban development to coordinate federal housing projects.  

1965 Voting Rights Act – Authorized attorney general to appoint officials to register voters. Ensured voting rights of African Americans.  
Abstract expressionism – School of painting that flourished after WWII until early 1960s. Characterized by view that art is nonrepresentational and chiefly improvisational.  
Black Power – Stokely Carmichael was unwilling to work with white civil-rights activists. In 1966, he called for civil rights movements to be “black-staffed, black-controlled, and black financed”. He later moved onto the Black Panthers (self-styled urban revolutionaries in Oakland, California).  

Cesar Chavez – Union organizer and social activist of 1960s. Founded National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) and United Farm Workers (UFW). Led a five-year nonviolent boycott against California grape growers, protesting poor working conditions and use of pesticides harmful to farm workers. The boycott was successful in winning new rights for workers.  

Keynesian economics – Economic theory stating that active government intervention in marketplace and monetary policy is best method of ensuring economic growth and stability.  
Cuban Missile Crisis – 1962. Major confrontation between US and Soviet Union over the presence of Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba. In October 1962, US spy plane detected a ballistic missile on a launching site in Cuba. Kennedy placed a naval blockade around Cuba, and for several days US and Soviet Union hovered on the brink of war. Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev finally agreed to remove missiles in return for a secret commitment from US to withdraw its own missiles from Turkey and to never invade Cuba. Increased tensions during Cold War and fueled nuclear arms race between the two.  

1964 Civil Rights Act – Law intended to end discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national origin. Guarantees equal voting rights. Prohibits segregation or discrimination in places of public accommodation. Bans discrimination by trade unions, schools, or employers involved in interstate commerce or do business with federal government. Calls for desegregation of public schools. Assures nondiscrimination in distribution of funds under federally assisted programs. Created Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to enforced law. Eliminated remaining restrictions on African-American voting. Generally considered most important US law on civil rights since Reconstruction.  

Medicare Act – 1965. Combined hospital insurance for retired people with a voluntary plan to cover physician’s bills.  
Unit X Terms

Alfred C. Kinsey  – Wrote the bestselling books Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, in which he discussed sexual orientation and behavior, subjects that were taboo prior to the 60s. Kinsey’s research contributed to the sexual revolution at the time.

Levittown – Unincorporated community of southeast New York. Founded in 1947. Was a low-cost housing development for WWII veterans.  
New Frontier – Term used by John F. Kennedy to describe economic and social challenges facing the US. Kennedy maintained that, like Americans of frontier in 19th century, Americans of 20th century had to rise to new challenges, such as achieving equality of opportunity for all. Epitomized Kennedy's commitment to renewal and change.

Lee Harvey Oswald – Assassinated Kennedy on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. Killed by Jack Ruby (nightclub owner) 2 days later. Investigation of murders concluded that Oswald acted alone in assassination.  

Great Society – President Lyndon Johnson’s domestic program. Would include a "war on poverty" and federal support for education, medical care for elderly, and legal protection for African Americans deprived of voting rights by state regulations. Also proposed a new department of housing and urban development to coordinate federal housing projects.  

1965 Voting Rights Act – Authorized attorney general to appoint officials to register voters. Ensured voting rights of African Americans.  
Abstract expressionism – School of painting that flourished after WWII until early 1960s. Characterized by view that art is nonrepresentational and chiefly improvisational.  
Black Power – Stokely Carmichael was unwilling to work with white civil-rights activists. In 1966, he called for civil rights movements to be “black-staffed, black-controlled, and black financed”. He later moved onto the Black Panthers (self-styled urban revolutionaries in Oakland, California).  

Cesar Chavez – Union organizer and social activist of 1960s. Founded National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) and United Farm Workers (UFW). Led a five-year nonviolent boycott against California grape growers, protesting poor working conditions and use of pesticides harmful to farm workers. The boycott was successful in winning new rights for workers.  

Keynesian economics – Economic theory stating that active government intervention in marketplace and monetary policy is best method of ensuring economic growth and stability.  
Cuban Missile Crisis – 1962. Major confrontation between US and Soviet Union over the presence of Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba. In October 1962, US spy plane detected a ballistic missile on a launching site in Cuba. Kennedy placed a naval blockade around Cuba, and for several days US and Soviet Union hovered on the brink of war. Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev finally agreed to remove missiles in return for a secret commitment from US to withdraw its own missiles from Turkey and to never invade Cuba. Increased tensions during Cold War and fueled nuclear arms race between the two.  

1964 Civil Rights Act – Law intended to end discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national origin. Guarantees equal voting rights. Prohibits segregation or discrimination in places of public accommodation. Bans discrimination by trade unions, schools, or employers involved in interstate commerce or do business with federal government. Calls for desegregation of public schools. Assures nondiscrimination in distribution of funds under federally assisted programs. Created Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to enforced law. Eliminated remaining restrictions on African-American voting. Generally considered most important US law on civil rights since Reconstruction.  

Medicare Act – 1965. Combined hospital insurance for retired people with a voluntary plan to cover physician’s bills.

Vietnamization – After the North Vietnamese rejected Nixon's plan that all the non-South Vietnamese troops needed to be withdrawn in phases and internationally supervised election be held in South Vietnam, the president turned to Vietnamization; the effort to build up South. Vietnamese forces while withdrawing American troops. 1969 Nixon reduced Am troop strength by 60,000 but @ the same time ordered the bombing of Cambodia a neutral country to "flush" out Vietcong.

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution –  (as LBJ' called it- the "grandma's nightshirt" b/c it covered everything) was used in August of 1964, after Lyndon Johnson claimed that the North Vietnamese gunboats had fired on American destroyers, the Resolution went through Congress and gave Johnson authorization to use military force in Vietnam. Senate passed it 88 to 2 and the House 416 to 0.

"Hawks" & "Doves" – The nation had two extreme views of the Vietnam war. "Hawks" would accept little short of a victory while "Doves" insisted on negotiating and not fighting. LBJ called his critics "nervous nellies" and demonstrators paraded past the White House chanting, " Hey, hey, LBJ, how many kids did you kill today?" With all of this the era of Hope and Liberalism was basically killed.  

Tet Offensive –  On January 31,1968, or the first day of the Vietnamese New Year (a.k.a. Tet), the Vietcong attacked many cities, towns, American Bases, and even Saigon. Even though the Vietcong suffered large losses, they won a psychological victory as Americans began to go against the war.

Chicago Demonstrations – On August 11, 1965, five days after signing of the Voting Rights Act, tensions b/w Police and Blacks in the largest Af. Am. district in Los Angeles ignited the most destructive race riot in decades. Blacks in Chicago and Springfield, Massachusetts, then took to the streets, looting, burning and battling the police. Extensive poverty and unequal distribution of income and wealth also fueled the riots. Summer of 67' 150 racial skirmishes and 40 riots made that the most intense and destructive period of racial violence in U.S. history.

Détente – a period of the cold war that developed in the early 1970s after disengagement from the war in Vietnam. During the period Nixon tried to achieve a détente with the communist powers of China and the Soviet Union.

Cambodian Controversy – is when Nixon sent in troops into Cambodia. It was controversial because Cambodia was not one of the main countries involved.  Nixon also secretly ordered air strikes on Cambodia and Laos, in which these B-52 raids threatened the stability of Cambodia.

Election of '68 – Republicans nominated Richard M. Nixon, who chose Spiro T. Agnew (MD) as his running mate in order to appeal to Southerners. George C. Wallace (AL) was part of the American Independent Party, who appealed to the fears generated by left wing protestors and big government. VP Hubert H. Humphrey was the Dem candidate. Nixon defeated Humphrey by a margin of 1%. Wallace had 13.5%, the best showing by a third-party candidate since 1924.

Eugene McCarthy – announced Candidacy for the 1968 presidential nomination running on issue of the opposition to the war.   He won 42% of the Dem. Vote in the New Hampshire Primary, while L.B.J. had 48%. Robert F. Kennedy then announced his candidacy for the Dem. Presidential nomination, but was assassinated leading to the L.B.J.’s withdrawal of candidacy and  to VP Hubert H. Humphrey becoming the candidate for the Democratic nomination.

George Wallace – George C. Wallace (AL) was part of the American Independent Party, who appealed to the fears generated by left wing protestors and big government. Had 13.5% in the 1968 Presidential Election.

Henry Kissinger – A major role in FP in both Nixon’s and Ford’s terms. Large role in the détente with Russia and better relations with China. Served as National Security Advisor then as Secretary of State, possibly a large reason why Nixon had success in his FP

Oil Embargo – Started in Oct 1973, OPEC issued an embargo on oil to America because we sent aid to Israel during the Yom Kippur War, created tough economic times for many Americans, furthered the inflation of the period, lifted in March ’74 partly due to Kissinger’s negotiation with Israel  

Nixon's Economic Policy – had a New Economic Plan: suspended conversions of the dollar to gold, imposed 90 day price and wage freeze and other mandatory controls, were largely successful but didn’t continue after election, proposed voluntary freezes which were rarely acted upon; he didn’t follow the stereotypical laissez-faire policies of his party  

Price and Wage Control – used by Nixon to curb inflation, if neither wages nor prices rose inflation would not continue to increase, exemplified most by the 90 day price and wage freeze Domino Theory –  popular ideology of “Cold Warriors” felt that if one country succumbed to Communism many others around would fall too, increasing the Soviets sphere of influence = bad; sometimes used by the government as fear mongering tactic

Kent State – public research university in Kent, Ohio. On May 4, 1970, the Kent State Massacre occurred, which involved the shooting of unarmed college students by members of the Ohio National Guard. The guardsmen fired 67 rounds over a period of 13 seconds, killing four students and wounding nine others, one of whom suffered permanent paralysis. Some of the students who were shot had been protesting against the American invasion of Cambodia. There was a significant national response to the shootings: hundreds of universities, colleges, and high schools closed throughout the United States due to a student strike of four million students, and the event further divided the country, at an already socially contentious time, about the role of the United States in the Vietnam War.

Election of '72 – Presidential election between Nixon(R) and George McGovern(D). Emphasizing a good economy and his successes in foreign affairs (especially ending American involvement in Vietnam and establishing relations with China), Nixon won the election in a massive landslide. McGovern only got Massachusetts.

George McGovern – Democratic nominee for the Election of 1972. a Senator known for his opposition to the Vietnam War. Had an anti-war campaign against Nixon in 1972 but lot in a landslide. Appointed in 1961 by U.S. President John F. Kennedy as the worldwide director of the Food for Peace program, he remained a longtime leader in ensuring nutrition and food security as a means to fight poverty and political instability. McGovern was appointed United Nations Ambassador on World Hunger in 2001. In 2008, he and Senator Bob Dole were named the 2008 World Food Prize Laureates for their work to promote school-feeding programs globally.

Sam Ervin – Democratic United States Senator from North Carolina from 1954 until 1974. Considered a liberal hero for his support of civil liberties, he is remembered for his work in the investigation committees that brought down Senator Joseph McCarthy in 1954 and President Richard Nixon in 1974.

Watergate Tapes – The Watergate tapes, a subset of the Nixon tapes, are a collection of recordings of conversations between U.S. President Richard Nixon and various White House staff. Those investigating the Watergate Scandal demanded he hand over the tapes. Nixon edited them as a result. They later forced him to give the unedited versions and he did. As a result Congress wrote up three impeachments for Nixon but he resigned before he could be formally impeached.                                                                                                                     Gerald Ford – In 1974, briefly after Richard “Dicks” Nixon’s resignation, Gerald “Four-head” Ford took office. Ford signed the Helsinki Accord, which moved the nation toward détente in the Cold War. He ended U.S. involvement in Vietnam after the North conquered the South. Domestically, Ford took over the shittiest economy since the Great Depression, with inflation and a recession which gave rise to the name Stagflation. He pardoned Nixon for his role in the Watergate scandal, and increased Congress’ role on foreign policy. In 1976, he defeated Ronald “Rape-gen” Reagan for the Republication nomination, but lost to Jimmy “Comb-over” Carter.

Mayaguez – incident involving the Khmer Rouge government in Cambodia that marked the last official battle of the Vietnam War in May of 1975.

Jimmy Carter – Took the presidency after defeating ford in the Election of 1976. He created the Department of Energy and Department of Education. He established a national energy policy including conservation, price control, and new technology. He signed the Camp David Accords, the Panama Canal Treaties and the SALT II. His latter time in office was marked by Iran bitching with Iraq. He lost fuel after a while, got wrinkles and saggy skin, so Ronal Reagan raped him in the Election of 1980.

SALT II – It was a controversial experiment of negotiations between Jimmy Carter and Leonid Brezhnev from 1977 to 1979 between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, which sought to curtail the manufacture of strategic nuclear weapons. The terms of the treaty were honored by both sides, yet the US Senate never actually ratified it  

Camp David Accords – agreement made between Egyptian leader Anwar el-Sadat and Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin, hosted by President Carter in 1978. The accords set a timetable for giving more autonomy to the Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza, occupied by Israel since the 1967 war. However, this effort by Carter to create peace in the Middle East failed, as Israel continued to build Jewish settlements in the occupied territories while other Arab states rejected the accords.  

Iranian hostage crisis – The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States wherein 53 Americans were held hostage for 444 days from November 4, 1979 to January 20, 1981, after a group of Islamist students and militants took over the American Embassy in support of the Iranian Revolution. The US sent military in Operation Eagle Claw and it failed, killing eight, they were later released with the signing of the Algier accords  

Supply-side Economics – also called trickle-down economics or voodoo economics; a theory that if taxes were cut on the wealthiest people in society, the wealthy would use their extra money to invest in the economy. President Reagan and other supporters of this theory also believed in limited government spending and less government regulation on the economy (laissez-faire). Critics felt that these policies would only result in a bigger gap between rich and poor.  

Reaganomics – refers to the economic policies promoted by the U.S. President Ronald Reagan during the 1980s. The four pillars of Reagan's economic policy were to: 1. Reduce government spending,

2. Reduce income and capital gains marginal tax rates,
3. Reduce government regulation of the economy,

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