Ap Psychology Mid-Term Exam Review

Topics: Nervous system, Classical conditioning, Reinforcement Pages: 9 (1636 words) Published: February 18, 2013
Chapter One↬
Humanism: Potential, Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow
Psychodynamic: Sigmund Freud, Unconscious, Repressed Memories Behaviorism: B.F. Skinner, Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, Environment, Reinforcement Cognitive: Thoughts, Internal Sentences
Biopsychology: Hormones, Neurotransmitters
Socio-Cultural: Religion, Race, Environment
Wilhelm Wundt: First Psychology Lab, Structuralism, Introspection Eclecticism: Combination Approach, Multiple Perspective
Gestalt: Whole Person, Max Wertheimer
Charles Darwin: Animal-Human Connection
William James: Functionalism, First Psychology Textbook

Chapter Two↬
Hypothesis: Statement to Prove, Contains both IV and DV
Control Group: Placebo, Does not get the IV
Independent Variable (IV): Causes the Result
Dependant Variable (DV): Is Measured
Experimental Group: Given the IV
Confounding Variable: Extraneous, Try to get rid of these
Statistical Significance: .05, p-value
Central Tendency: Statement to Prove
Variability: Standard Deviation, Range, Variance
Correlation: Relationship, Coefficient
Normal Distribution: Mean=Median, 68%
Inferential Statistics: Sampling Error, Generalizes to the Larger Population Statistically No Relation: 0.00
Statistically a Strong Relation: -.85
Statistically a Weak Relation: +.35
Double Blind Study: Researcher and Participant are unaware of the IV distribution Hawthorne Effect: Subject’s expectation hurts the experiment results Naturalistic Observation: No interaction with the subject

Survey: Subject is questioned
Case Study: Research subject’s past
Field Study: Opposite of Laboratory Experiments

Chapter Three↬
Dendrites: receives incoming messages
Axon: carries messages away
Terminal Buttons: vesicles that contain neurotransmitters, end of the axon Neurotransmitters: Serotonin, AcH
Myelin Sheath: protects the axon
Soma: Cell body, Nucleus
Synapse: space between neurons
Action Potential: All or nothing
Afferent Nerves: towards the brain
Efferent Nerves: away from the brain
Interneurons: nerves in the brain
Acetylcholine (AcH): Alzheimer’s Disease
Dopamine: Parkinson’s Disease, Schizophrenia
Serotonin: Depression, Anxiety
Endorphins: Natural Painkillers, Exercise, addictions
Automatic: Heart, Lungs, Glands, Organs
Somatic Nervous System: Skeletal Muscles
Sympathetic: response to stress
Central Nervous System: Brain and Spinal Cord
Parasympathetic: brings body back to normal
Peripheral Nervous System: all nerves in the body except the brain and the spinal cord EEG: Brain Waves
MRI: uses magnets to get more detail of the brain
PET: shows which areas of the brain are the most active
CAT: gets 3-D images of the brain
Medulla: Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Breathing
Pons: Facial Expression
Cerebellum: Balance, Coordination and Movement
Thalamus: Central Relay Station
Hypothalamus: Hunger, Thirst, Pleasure, Rage
Amygdala: Emotion
Hippocampus: Memory Formation
Frontal Lobes: Motor Strip, Personality, Decisions
Corpus Callosum: connects the left and right hemispheres, Split-Brain Patients Parietal Lobes: Sensory Strip, Touch
Occipital Lobes: Assembles Visual
Temporal Lobes: Sounds, Language
Brocas Area: ability to speak
Plasticity: brain’s ability to adapt
Wernicke’s Area: interprets written and spoken words
Fissure: division in the brain
Left Hemisphere: language and logic
Right Hemisphere: emotions and artistic
Down’s Syndrome: Extra 21st Chromosome, Mental Retardation Klinefelter's Syndrome: Extra X Chromosome
Turner’s Syndrome: Lacking an X Chromosome
Gender: 23rd pair determines this, XY or XX

Chapter Four↬
Iris: controls the amount of light entering the eye
Cornea: clear outer covering of the eye
Retina: back wall of the eye
Lens: focuses image on the retina
Optic Nerve: pathway to the brain
Fovea: sharpest vision occurs here
Pupil: opening that allows light to enter
Blind Spot: no light receptors
Cones: color vision
Rods: used for night vision
Optic Chiasm: spot where the optic...
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