Psychology: The science of behavior and mental processes.
Philosophical Origins of Psychology: India- Buddha pondered how sensations can perceptions combine to form ideas. China- Confucius stressed powers of ideas and of an educated mind. Ancient Israel- Hebrew Scriptures anticipated today’s psychology by linking mind and emotion to the body. Socrates and Aristotle in Greece.
Freud: Independent approach to the study of the mind called psychoanalysis Watson: Baby Albert experiment; classical conditioning
Pavlov: Classical conditioning, salivating dogs
Skinner: Pigeon experiment; operant conditioning -> reinforcement and punishment Maslow: Hierarchy of needs, self actualization which is the process of fulfilling our potential Wundt: Established first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany James: Memory researcher and president of American Psychological Association
Schools of Psych & Personality
Personality: individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting Psychoanalytic:
Free association- method of exploring the unconscious in which a person relaxed and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing Unconscious- reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feeling, and memories Freud’s view of personality; a conflict between our aggressive, pleasure seeking biological impulses and the internalized social restraints against them, one’s personality is the result of our effort to resolve this basic conflict. Id- sexual and aggressive needs; Ego- mediates the demands of the id, superego, and reality, finds ways to satisfy needs that are socially acceptable; Superego- internalized ideals and provides standards for judgements (ie. morals) Psychosexual Stages- childhood stages of development during which according to Freud, the id’s pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct sexual zones Oedipus Complex- a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings...
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