AP NSL notes

Chapter 7 Notes
high-tech politics - politics in which the behavior of citizens and policymakers is increasingly shaped by technology mass media - media that reaches the masses
Z8 mediums: books, newspapers, magazines, movies, radio, recording industry (songs), television, Internet’ print media, broadcast media
approx. ⅔ of American public subscribes to cable TV
Reagan white house principles:
plan ahead
stay on the offensive
control the flow of information
limit reporters’ access to the president
talk about the issues you want to talk about
speak in one voice
repeat the same message many times
Reagan was former actor; did not like unplanned press conferences Roosevelt, on the other hand held many press conferences, used radio to advantage, knew how to feed the right story to the right reporter relationship between politicians and the press used to be respectable, until Watergate and Vietnam War soured the press on government work in environment of cynicism today

investigative journalism (watchdog journalism) - job is to find scandal, bring down corrupt politicians, etc Scorekeeping/horse race journalism - popularity, who’s ahead, general gauging campaigns Gatekeeping - decides what is discussed on political agenda, happens rarely now b/c of competition Mainstream TV and newspaper reporting today is fishbowl style Fairness doctrine required broadcasters to give time to opposing views if broadcasting one side of a controversial issue; abolished in 1980s yellow journalism - sensational style of reporting, little to no researched stories with eye popping headlines, in the midst of Spanish-American war over Cuba FCC regulates airwaves in 3 ways

to prevent monopolies, limits # of stations owned by one company periodic examinations of performance
fair treatment rules concerning access to airwaves (equal time) narrowcasting - specialized info for a specific audience
cable news programing - very little substantive info
privately owned- goal is for large audience, cuts expenses for news that may be inconvenient trial balloons - info leaked to the public to see what the reaction will be embedded journalism - journalists travel along with troops and become part of unit during Gulf War, 15 influential news organizations sent letter complaining that rules for reporting the war were designed more to control than to facilitate the news Only skimpy attention is given to issues during presidential campaign, day-to-day policies is even thinner; media focuses more on strategy and who was winning than on specific policy issues Three theories of role of news media in society

hypothermic needle theory - media has immediate and powerful effect on people minimal effects hypothesis - political campaigns only marginally sway and convert voters media does not tell audience what to think but what to think about TV news alters priorities that people assign to topics by showing over greater lengths of time sound bites - 10 or less seconds

The Incredible Shrinking Sound Bite - the shrinking of the length of time of which a presidential candidate is shown speaking without interruptions limited evidence to support liberal bias- but most stories are presented with two opposing points of view w/audience left to draw own conclusions TV particularly biased to stories that generate good pictures policy agenda - the list of subjects or problems to which government officials and associated persons are paying serious attention to policy entrepreneurs - political activists who invest political ‘capital’ on an issue, depend heavily on media, sometimes resort to staging dramatic vents media is key linkage institution

rise of TV broadcasting has reinforced and furthered individualism candidates much more capable of running for office by appealing to people directly on TV

Feeding Frenzy article
press has become obsessed w/gossip, searches for trivial scandals rather than scrutiny mechanism driving this is feeding frenzy, where press leaps to...
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