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AP Human Geography Rubenstein Ch. 10 vocab and examples

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AP Human Geography Rubenstein Ch. 10 vocab and examples
KEY CONCEPTS STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 10: Dynamic Patterns of the Space Economy
Column A: Concepts
Column B: Definition with Examples
___ 1. Circular and Cumulative Causation
A. A model of the spatial structure of an economic system in which underdeveloped or declining peripheral areas are defined with respect to their dependence on a dominating developed core region.
___ 2. Core-periphery model
B. The process of growth, expansion or realization of potential; bringing regional resources into full productive use.
Ex) industrialization
___ 3. Cultural convergence
C. In the culture sense, a reference to socially created- not biologically based- distinctions between femininity and masculinity
Ex) Male, female, etc.
___ 4. Development
D. A process through which tendencies for economic growth are self- reinforcing; an expression of the multiplier effect, it tends to favor major cities and core regions over less-advantaged peripheral regions.
___ 5. Gender
E. A monetary measurement that takes account of what money actually buys in each country.
Ex) Big Mac cost $3.50 in US and 35 pesos in Mexico. Then one peso equals 10 cents.
___ 6. Gross national income (GNI)
F. The contrast between the technology available in developed core regions and that present in peripheral areas of underdevelopment.
Ex) Power looms vs. cottage hand looms during Industrial Revolution
___ 7. Informal economy
G. The total value of goods and services produced by a country per year plus net income earned abroad by its nationals; formerly called ‘gross national product’
Ex) Goods in Scandinavia or higher than those in the US.
___ 8. Purchasing power and parity (PPP)
H. The diffusion outward of benefits of economic growth and prosperity from the power center or core area to poorer districts and people.
Ex) Asian produced goods ranging from cheap textiles to expensive automobiles.
___ 9. Spread Effect
I. A level of economic and social achievement below what could be reached- given natural and human resources of an area- was necessary capital and technology available.
Ex) Mali
___ 10. Technology
J. The integrated system of knowledge, skills, tools, and methods developed within or used by a culture to successfully carry out purposeful and productive tasks.
Ex) phones, airplanes, cars.
___ 11. Technology gap
K. Synonym to spread effect. The dispersion of benefits of economic growth from core areas.
Ex) Asian produced goods ranging from cheap textiles to expensive automobiles.
___ 12. Technology transfer
L. The tendency for cultures to become more alike as they increasingly share technology and organizational structures in a modern world united by improved transportation and communication.
Ex) Chinese restaurants being established in the United States while McDonald's and other fast food restaurants establish restaurants in China.
___ 13. Trickle-down effect
M. The diffusion to or acquisition by one culture or region of the technology possessed by another, usually more developed, society.
Ex) Chemical plant of Bhopal
___ 14. Underdevelopment
N. The part of a national economy that involves productive labor not subject to formal systems of control or payment; economic activity or individual enterprise operating without official recognition or measured by official statistics.
Ex) Zimbabwe, Tanzania, and Nigeria

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