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AP European History 1st Semester

By catrabbit203 Feb 02, 2014 8518 Words

AP European History- Unit 3 Study Guide

Hey guys add whoever you want to this. ok sure, thanks Nick! Dates
1517 - start of protestant reformation (95 theses)
1521- Diet of Worms
1545- Council of Trent (start of counter-reformation)
1555- Peace of Augsburg
1555-late 1500s - height of spain
1618- Start of 30 years war
1648- Peace of Westphalia (end of Counter reformation)

New Heaven and Earth
-Evangelicals / Protestants 1529
-List 8 MAJOR criticisms of the Church
· Indulgences
· Moral behavior of clergy
· Nepotism-giving offices to relatives
· Pluralism-holding two or more offices
· Simony-selling of church offices
· Clergy focused on wealth-indulgences and whatnot
· No vernacular Bibles-all in Vulgate(latin)
· Unlearned priests
-*Christian (Northern) vs. Italian Humanism
· Praise of Folly
o Satirized values held dear by contemporaries: modesty, humility and poverty represented true Christian virtues in a world that worshipped pomposity, power, and wealth · Handbook of a Christian Knight

o Plea for a simple religion devoid of greed and the lust for power o Emphasis on education and science
o Knight was a metaphor for a Christian that has virtu
· Utopia
o Imaginary land intended as a critique of his own society o Community was just, hard working, equitable, no private property Protestant Reformers
-***Know the Big Chart O’ Protestants
· -precursors
o Hus
o Wycliffe
· -his life and background
o Father urged him to become a lawyer, but during a storm make a promise to Saint Anne that if he gets out he will join the monastery · -Indulgences, relics
o Friar Tetzel sold indulgences for Archbishop Albrecht
o Simony/indulgences irked Luther because peasants didn’t understand that they had to show contrition and not commit the same sin again or they would live in hell · -95 Theses 1517
o Wittenberg Castle Church, 1517
o Exposes Catholic ills
Luther-burning of the Papal Bull
· -Diet of Worms 1521
o Called by Charles V who is concerned over states splitting to follow Luther o Ordered Luther to recant but he did not
· -Lutheran dogma
o 2 sacraments- baptism/communion
o Faith alone saves
o No transubstantiation
o No hierarchy for salvation- community of believers
o No decoration- focus on worship
o Vernacular Bible
o Personal relationship with God
· -Vernacular Bible
o Translates the New Testament to German while at Frederick the Wise’s house -Philip Melancthon
o Friend/supporter of Luther
-Johann Eck (Catholic)
o Debated him at Diet of Leipzig
-Leo X
o Excommunicated Luther, burned his works
-Elector of Saxony
· Frederick the Wise protects Luther
-Charles V
-Zwingli’s theocracy / Zurich, Switzerland
· Traditional protestant beliefs +
· Anything with no Biblical basis rejected
· No hymns other than Psalms
· Elimination of mass and clerical garb
· More radical than Luther
· Church= state (true theocracy)
· -Geneva
o Fled France after Affair of the Placards (broadsheets denouncing mass placed on church doors=> persecution of reform groups) · -Institutes of the Christian Religion
o Expounded on doctrines, history, organization, and practices of Christianity in systematically · -Predestination
o Everybody from the time of birth has been ordained to heaven of hell · -“The Elect”
o Those who would be saved (go to heaven)
· -Work Ethic / Democracy
o Traits
Reshaping Society Through Religion
-*Peasant War of 1525
· Luther’s anticlerical message struck home with the peasants who were paying taxes to both their lord and church · Southern and central Germany (HRE)
-Thomas Muntzer
· Ex-priest that led rebels in Thuringia (HRE) in peasant war · Promised to chastise the wicked and thus clear the way for the last judgment -**Anabaptism
· Traditional protestant beliefs +
· Separate communities
· Reject secular authority
· Pacifism
· Polygamy
· No private property
· Church= society
· Lower middle class artisans
-Jan of Leiden / Munster
· Leader of an Anabaptist group in Munster that proclaimed themselves saints · Claimed to be the prophesized leader- a second “King David” -Menno Simons
· Dutch reformer lead Anabaptist movement in northwestern Europe (pacifist) -Suppression of vernacular Bibles
-Establishment of primary/secondary schools
· Protestant
o Two tiered state school system controlled by state officials o Aimed to train obedient, pious, and hardworking Christian citizens · Catholic
o Jesuits establish colleges to compete with gymnasia
o Northern and central Italians (boys/girls) got some education; elsewhere unknown -Gymnasia
· Protestant secondary system of humanist schools intended to prepare students for university · Greek and Latin core curriculum
-State support of poor
· Nuremburg/Strasbourg magistrates centralize poor relief with church funds o Appointed officials to head urban agencies to distribute funds · 1520s low countries/Spain prohibited begging and instituted public charity · Charles V instituted welfare tax in Spain to augment inadequate system of charity · Henry VIII asked the justices of the peace to license the poor and differentiate between those capable to work and those not · In protestant government public relief became permanent feature once private charity not needed to go to heaven -Protestant/ Catholic marriage ordinances

· Women could divorce for impotence, flagrant abuse, and desertion · Catholic
o Prior to reformation recognized any promise between adults as marriage, now marriage legitimate after registered by an official · Protestant
o Decried sexual immorality, glorified the family
o Parents consent to marriage
o Marriage validated by an official
o Cannot renounce marriage, family, and sexuality to attain power in the church -Protestant role for women
· More marital equality with husband
· Katharina von Bora

Results of the Protestant Reformation:
Northern Europe(Scandinavia, England, much of Germany, parts of France, Switzerland, Scotland) adopted Protestantism The Unity of Western Christianity was shattered
Religious Wars broke out in Europe for well over a century (these religious wars had other motives also) The Protestant spirit of individualism encouraged democracy, science, and capitalism Protestantism, especially Lutheranism, justified nationalism by making the church subordinate to the state in all but theological matters Struggle for Mastery / Wars Among Hapsburgs, Valois, and Ottomans -The Court

· The prince’s household
o Household servants, noble attendants, councilors, officials, artists, and soldiers -Reasons for the Court
· Impress subjects
· Prevent rebellion (somehow they are set apart from normal society) · Impose authority without being questioned
-Life at court
- Article: “Elizabeth I”
-**Castiglione “The Courtier”
· A manual for how to be a good member of the court
o Proper language and dress
-Fugger banking house
· Lent money to the Hapsburgs
· Didn’t pay back their debts even though granted the family mining/minting concessions -Henry VIII (1509- 1547)
· -Catherine of Aragon
o First wife
o Mother of Mary
o Catholic, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella
· -Anne Boleyn
o Second wife
o Mother of Elizabeth I
· -Jane Seymour
o third wife
o Mother of Edward VI
· -“Defender of the Faith”
o Henry originally opposed the reformation- suppressed/executed protestants · -Act of Supremacy
o King has full power=> head of church
· -Thomas More
o Beheaded for treason because didn’t recognize Henry as “the only supreme head on earth of the Church of England” · -Church of England
o Hybrid of Catholicism, Anglican
-Edward VI 1547-53
· Took the throne at 10 years old
· Personality: cold, serious, cruel
· Regents: 1547-1549 Edward Seymour
1549-1553 John Dudley
· Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer transforms the Church of England into a protestant church- Book of Common Prayer · Edward leaves the throne to Lady Jane Grey (protestant) o John Dudley (regent) wanted to maintain power so arranged the marriage of Jane and his son Guilford o Planned to arrest and eliminate Mary Tudor, and bullied the royal council into accepting Jane

-Bloody Mary Tudor 1553-58
· 37 years old at time of accession
· Love/ hate relationship with Elizabeth
o Feared she would be the figurehead of protestant plot to remove her · Personality: proud, stubborn, vain, vulnerable to flattery · 1554 brought England back into the protestant fold-burnt hundreds of protestants at the stake, including Thomas Cranmer · Married Philip of Spain, who soon abandoned her (son of 1st cousin Charles V) · Leaves throne to Elizabeth I

-Elizabeth I 1558-1603
-Mary Queen of Scots
· Elizabeth had her executed
· Catholic
· Son James I Stuart becomes king, Scottish nobles made sure he was protestant · Martial interest of Philip II
· Driven out of Scotland by Calvinist nobles- fled to England -**Charles V
· -Reformation conflict / princes
· -Schmalkaldic League
o German protestant princes/cities
§ Headed by elector of Saxony/ Philip of Hesse
· -Diet of Regensburg 1541
o Charles V tries to calm tensions between Catholics/protestants by patching up theological differences but negotiations breakdown · -“Interim” 1547
o After Charles V defeats the Schmalkaldic league restored Catholic right to worship on protestant lands while permitting Lutherans to consecrate communion as both bread and wine · -** Peace of Augsburg 1555

o Recognized Lutheran church, secularization of church lands, princes controlled religion of land § Excluded Calvinist, Anabaptists
§ After Duke Maurice of Saxony leads fight against Charles V · -Abdication decisions
o Splits kingdom into two
§ Spain to son Philip I
§ Austria to brother Ferdinand I

Continuing Reformation
-*** Council of Trent (Catholics reaffirm :) (Tridentine Creed) · Justification by faith and works
· Kept all 7 sacraments- vehicles of grace
· Latin Vulgate only correct translation
· Clergy necessary for interpretation of the Bible and God’s will · Affirmed relics, celibacy of clergy, purgatory, prayer to Mary and saints, monastic orders · Indulgencies reformed and continued

-Paul III
· Pope during the counter-reformation
-*Reassertion of major Catholic
· Transubstantiation
· Purgatory
· Indulgences
· 7 sacraments
· Relics
· Papal Power
-*Reform measures within the
Catholic church
· Seminaries to train competent priests (middle class demands learned priests) · No pluralism, nepotism, simony, priest relationships with women -*Igantius Loyola / Jesuits
· Missionaries that emphasized education
-Bartolome de Las Casas
· Missionary in for Indians in the new world
-Francis Xavier
· Missionary in Asia
-Baroque Art
· It attempts to evoke emotional states by appealing to the senses, often in dramatic ways · Identifiable by: grandeur, sensuous richness, drama, vitality, movement, tension, and emotional exuberance, dramatic use of LIGHT · Originated in Rome and is associated with the reinvigorated Catholic Church and the counter-reformation o Play up mysticism (you could communicate with God by going without food sleep, and water) to attract Catholics · Some baroque art has nothing to do with emotional display- for example Dutch portraits of everyday life · Caravaggio, Rembrandt, Bernini

AP European History – Review List Unit 4

Widening Geographic Horizons
-Prince Henry the Navigator
· From Portugal- sponsored/founded a school for navigation -*Vasco de Gama 1499
· Finds water route to India- portugal
-Magellan 1512
· 1st explorer to circumnavigate the globe- Portugal
-Bartolomeu Dias
· Cape of Good Hope- Portugal
-Treaty of Tordesillas 1494
· Pope Alexander XI divides the atlantic world into two
Portugal gets the east
Spain gets the west
-Columbus 1492
· With support of Ferdinand and Isabella set out west
-New era of slavery
· Impressed the south American natives
-Cortes and Pizarro
· Cortez- Aztecs
· Pizarro- Incas in Peru
· Silver mine in Peru
-New technology and instruments
· Astrolabe/sextant- tells latitude
· Compass- direction
· Used a knotted rope to tell them speed
· Lateen sail for tracking
· Caravel
· Clock for longitude
-Why Portugal+Spain surpass Italy
· Unified nation states/new monarchs (have the resources) · Geography- not threatened by the Turks that had destroyed Venetian trade · Looking for new non-threatened routs
· Religion- no reformation turmoil
· Humanism- make most of talents
-Galley vs. Caravel
· Galley- flat bottomed=> tipped easily
· Caravel- rounded (keel at bottom)=> deeper/rougher waters Religious Conflicts and State Power
-Know the religion of the countries
of Europe
-**French Wars of Religion
o French Calvinists
·-Valois Kings
o 1st French ruling family
·-Guise Family
o Powerful French Catholic family
o Head Catholic league
o Henry, Duke of Guise
· -Bourbon Family
o Rule after the Valois beginning with Henry IV (Henry of Navarre) ·-Henry II
-*Catherine d’Medici
o Regent for son’s Francis II, Charles IX, Henry III
o Married Henry II
· -Henry III
o Last of Valois dynasty
o Was a cross dresser- lost prestige
o Calls Duke of Guise to Paris and has him killed
o In return Catholic league (Guise part of it) has a monk stab Henry to death ·*St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
o Henry Navarre ( Bourbon/leader of the Huguenots) marries Charles IX sister Marguerite in Paris o After wedding tried to kill all the Huguenots they could o Ill considered because it increased Huguenot anger

-**Henry IV
o Must go to Paris to receive his crown, but Paris shuts its gates (Catholic) and refuses to recognize him § Decides to siege it-bombed it, eventually people began to starve- Philip drives away the siege § Turns Catholic

o Edict of Nantes
o Killed by stalker who stabs him
·-*Edict of Nantes 1598
o Granted Huguenots religious toleration, protected legally (judges), free to worship in specified towns · -Politiques
o Would much rather have a peaceful/orderly/productive nation than enforcing religious conformity through war/violence o Examples: Henry IV Bourbon is the first
Elizabeth I Tudor
Philip II
Bloody Mary Tudor
-**Challenges to Spanish Power
· -Philip II
· -Escorial- Philip the II’s palace outside of Madrid; functions as a palace, government building, monastery · -Mary Tudor- keep Catholicism in England with the birth of a child · -*Lepanto 1571-duke of parma was here as well

o Philip II joins with Venice and the papacy to defeat the Turks in a sea battle off the Greek coast o Now controlled the western Mediterranean
o Victory destroyed any prospect that Turks might come to the aid of the Moriscos (Muslim converts) · -1566 Revolt in Netherlands
o Starts with Calvinists attacked Catholic churches (smashed statues of Mary and stained glass windows) o Philip II’s mercenary army sacks Antwerp=> Spanish fury (soldiers kill 7,000) · -(7)Union of Utrecht / (current day)Netherlands- created the Dutch Republic

o Protestant northern provinces
· -(10)Spanish Netherlands
Union of Arras
o Catholic southern provinces
· -*William of Orange- utrecht
o Leads anti-Spanish resistance in Netherlands- Orange family is dominant in the Union of Utrecht
Holland is the major province in the Union of Utrecht
o Encouraged adventurers/pirates (sea beggars) to invade northern ports o Leads the eventual Dutch republic (but real power vested in urban merchant/professional families) · -Twelve Year’s Truce 1609

o Between Spain/ Netherlands; win for the Dutch
· -Independence 1648- Peace of Westphalia
o Year Spain recognizes Dutch independence
-Dutch Republic
· -States General
o Central court of each province governed itself and sent delegates to the states general · -Maritime economy
o Thriving economy based on shipbuilding and trade
§ Looked for investment in trade
o Amsterdam became money market
o Chief supplier of arms
o Merchants favored free trade
· -Religious diversity
o 1/3 Catholic, relatively large Jewish population, Calvinists -Elizabeth I Tudor
· -Assistance to the Dutch
· -39 Articles 1563
o Incorporated Catholic ritual along with Calvinist doctrines(anglican?) · -Puritan dissension
o Seeking to accomplish reforms they undercut bishops authority by placing church administration in the hands of local presbytery made up of minister/elders of the congregation § Elizabeth rejected “Presbyterianism”(scottish calvinists) -**The Armada 1588

· Reasons for attack
o Attacks by English privateers (Francis Drake)
o Actions against English Catholics
o Helping Spain’s enemies (Netherlands)
o Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots
· Invasion Plan
o Bring together a large army of soldiers in the Netherlands under the Duke of Parma and get them ready to invade England o Using a large fleet of ships, carry extra fighting men, equipment and supplies from Spain to the Straits of Dover to join up with Parma’s army o Win control of the English Channel and protect Parma as he crossed the straits o Invade England and force Elizabeth to agree to Spain’s demands · FAILED- the “protestant wind” detrimental because they had to sail around British Isles -Effects of the Armada

· England
o Start of naval power
o Stronger feelings of nationalism- “protestant wind” made them feel protestant faith better (protestant identity) o Defining event for Elizabeth-proved good enough as a woman · -validated her power and England’s power

o Not the end of power (still had the riches of the new world) but start of their decline · Netherlands
o Weakens Spain- civil war can continue with English aid
o Morale boost
-Reasons for the decline of Spain (dominant age- 1450 to 1550) · War costs- Netherlands, England, France
· The little ice age- famine/bad harvest
· Intermarrying Spanish/Austrian Hapsburgs=> sickness; mentally inept too
Weak Leadership- Charles VII??
· Dutch East India, France, and England challenge the new world · *gold/silver ran out- mines exhausted
· *social makeup- a middle class never developed- 1/3 clergy, 1/3 minor nobles Elizabethan England
-Life at Hampton Court
-Personal characteristics of Elizabeth
· Very demanding, vain about beauty, swore, disagreeable · “better to be feared than loved”- needed respect from nobles -Relatives:
· Anne Boleyn- mother
· Henry VIII-father
· Mary Tudor- sister
· Philip II-brother-in-law; proposed marriage
· Edward VI- brother
· Mary Queen of Scots-cousin she had executed
· Robert Dudley-“lover”, chief advisor, Earl of Lyster Thirty Years’ War 1618-48
-Link to Peace of Augsburg 1555
· Was supposed to maintain the balance between Lutherans and Catholics but it had no mechanism for resolving conflict; additionally Calvinists not included -Elector states
· 7 provinces of the HRE that had their princes elect the emperor; 4 secular and 3 are Archbishops -4 phases
· -Bohemian
o War 1st broke out here after the defenestration(threw someone(s) out of a window in prague) of Prague (1618) o When Hapsburg heir Archduke Ferdinand crowned king of Bohemia curtailed the religious freedoms of protestants o When elected emperor bohemians dispose of him and chose Calvinist Frederick V of Palatines

§ Imperial army defeats the Czechs at White Mountain
o Private mercenary armies begin to rise, emperor had virtually no control of them § Occupied and plundered much of protestant Germany with emperor’s approval- Wallenstein ·Danish
o Lutheran king Christian V responds to Wallenstein’s depredations by invading northern Germany to protect protestants/extend influence § Despite Dutch/English encouragement lost to Wallenstein

· -Swedish
o With protestant interests in jeopardy Gustavus Adolphus marched into Germany in 1630 o Intended to gain control of the trade in northern Europe o Political motives became obvious
§ The French government offered to subsidize the Lutheran Gustavus § Richelieu hoped to block Spanish intervention and win influence/territory in the HRE § Showed state now outweighed all else
o Gustavus defeats the imperial army and occupied the Catholic parts of southern Germany · -French
o Declares war on Spain after forging an alliance with the Dutch to aid the their independence o Richelieu and Louis XIII hoped to profit from troubles of Spain/Netherlands and Austrian emperor and his subjects o Peasants in northeast province of Catalonia rebel

§ Overrun Barcelona- mad government takes crops and must quarter troops o Portugal revolts- proclaims independence
-HRE Ferdinand II
-Defenestration of Prague
· Bohemians throw the Austrian ambassadors out of the church window into dung -White Mountain 1620
· When elected emperor bohemians dispose of him and chose Calvinist Frederick V of Palatines o Imperial army defeats the Czechs at White Mountain
o It became the enduring symbol of the Czech’s desire for self-determination -*Wallenstein
§ Czech protestant by birth who raised an army for the emperor (Catholic) § Plundered and occupied protestant Germany
-*Edict of Restitution 1629
· Outlawed Calvinism in the empire (HRE) and reclaimed catholic church properties confiscated by the Lutherans -Gustavus Adolphus
-Louis XIII Bourbon
-*Cardinal Richelieu
· Regent for Henry XII
-Social effects of the war
-Growth of armies
-***Peace of Westphalia
· -Religious settlements
o German princes demanded autonomy from Hapsburgs- each prince gained the right to establish Lutheranism, Catholicism, or Calvinism in his state o Distributions of the religions in HRE- Lutheranism in the north, Calvinism in the area of the Rhine River, Catholicism in the south · -Territorial adjustments

o France acquired parts of Alsace
o Sweden took several northern territories from HRE from Baltics · -New independent nations
o Spain must recognize the Dutch
· -Winners and losers
o Winners- Sweden and France
o Loser- Spanish/Austrian Hapsburgs
-Overall effects
· -Secular v. Religious - - alterior motives to the 30 years war End of Counter-Reformation
· -Shift in power, south to north
· -Congress system- made an overarching congress
· -German fragmentation- Germany will not be unified until 1871 ( France is dominant from: 1648-1871)
-German princes had more authority/ german unity went down as principalities were increasingly autonomous. -Increased state authority of new nation states
· -Taxation
· -Bureaucracy
· -“Intendants”
o Richelieu set up intendants- delegates from the king’s council dispatched to the provinces- to oversee police, army, and financial affairs
- in which bourgeois officials, answerable only to the king, supervised the provinces and diminished the power of the nobility · -“Raison d’etat”
o “reason of state”- state’s interest above all else o Richelieu= prevented German unification
· -Divine Right Monarchy
o -James I Stuart= shift in power from the Tudor family to the Stuart family
In France= shift from the Valois family to Bourbon family (Henry of Navarre) o Kings accountable only to God
Paradigm shifts after the Thirty Years War
France dominant, Spain and HRE down
Decrease in Catholicism, end to the Counter Reformation (1648) Prussia, Danish, and Swedish are on the rise
Portugal, Danish, Swiss, Swedish, Dutch-- independence from HRE/Spain Protestantism (Increase)
German Princes (increase in power)--ability to determine the religion of their lands, have 2 Protestant religions to chose from (Calvinism and Lutheranism) Decline in Papal Authority
Raison E’tat/Balance of Power

Economic Crisis and Realignnment
-Little Ice Age
· Famine, bad harvest
-Reasons for the recession of the 1500s
-Differences between East/West Europe
-Changes in social norms, 1600s
Baroque Art
-Characteristics of Baroque Art
· Grandeur, sensuous richness, drama, vitality, movement, tension, emotional exuberance, and dramatic use of LIGHT · Dramatic Biblical scenes
-Famous Artists, Sculptors, Musicians, Architecture
· Artists- Caravaggio, Rubens, Rembrandt, Velasquez, Vermeer, Gentileschi · Sculptor- Bernini (The Ecstasy of St. Theresa)
· Architecture- city of St. Petersburg, Palace of Versailles · Musicians- Bach, Vivaldi, Handel, Pachelbel
-Link to Counter-Ref. and Absolute Monarchs
The heightened biblical scenes were supposed to once

AP European History – Unit 5 Review List

5-1: Louis XIV Model of Absolutism
-Absolutism vs. Constitutionalism
-Defenses of absolutism
-Secular and Religious
-“L’etat c’est moi”
=I am the state- absolutism
-Revolt of the Fronde
A series of revolts when Louis XIV was young that unsettled him; revoltists hoped would lead to a constitutional government -Mazarin
A cardinal that ruled for Louis XIV
Sold new offices ,increased taxes, forced creditors to extend loans When a coalition of opponents present a charter of demands that if granted would give the parlements a form of constitutional power to approve taxes he arrests the leaders of parlement With civil war now threatening, he and Anne of Austria must compromise with parlement -Court Life

By giving out pensions, offices, honors, and gifts with the threat of disfavor/punishment Louis makes himself the center of court life- they vied for his favor to better self position Nobles learned etiquette , attended his ballets/theater, followed fashion - Versailles

Symbolized his success in reigning in the nobility and dominating Europe -“Sun King”
Adorned the court with statues of Apollo
created cult of personality complete with elaborate rituals
-Divine Right Theory
Kings are God’s lieutenant on earth
-Bishop Bossuet
His treatise Politics Derived from Holy Writ expressed the theory of divine right kings Sought proof from Bible
Rule in accordance with God’s laws
-Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Hoped the Huguenots would convert to Catholicism
Closed churches, banned activities, exiled some who refused state religion Lost the middle class (fled to Prussia/Netherlands) but gained uniform society enhancing the projection of absolute authority -Bureaucracy / Intendants

Used the bureaucracy to establish a mercantilist policy
Government establishes an overseas trading company, granted monopolies, rescinded internal customs fees, increased the foreign tariff, encouraged settlement in Canada -Mercantilism
(Review sheet you received) /also know it was replaced with Adam Smith’s Free Market Capitalism -Military advancements
Centralized the organization of troops, barracks got supplies from a central distribution center, state offered veterans hospital care, uniforms provided, militia draft -“Universal Monarchy”
Because of Louis XIV’s territorial aggression, he was accused of wanting to dominate all of Europe 5-2: Absolutism in Central Europe
Brandenburg – Prussia
-territorial issues
-Elector status
The ruler of Brandenburg-Prussia was one of the 7 German princes entitled to elect the Holy Roman Emperor; Elector of Brandenburg -Frederick William “Great Elector” (1640-88)
Starts the rise of the Prussian military
-Methods of consolidation of power
-Junker / Peasant relationship
--“Militarization” methods
Canton system, state service, education, merit based within the nobility, marching in step, suspended court culture, mining/textiles/shipbuilding supported -Frederick William “Great Elector”
-Effect of 30 Years’ War
When he sees the devastation after the war (and the wolves eating the people) he vows to not let that happen again -Frederick I 1701-13
Austrians allowed them to call themselves king after peace of Utrecht; was Frederick III -Frederick William I “Sergeant King”1713-40
Militarism (all economic benefits are structured to provide fro and expand military, military service is required by all men- serve in the military or state bureaucracy (state service)) -Frederick II “The Great” 1740-86

Does the most to expand Prussian territory
-Potsdam Grenadiers
Tall soldiers (captured for his personal collection ) under William Frederick -Canton system
Each neighborhood had to send a certain number of men to the army -Know Prussian geography
Very scattered territory- Brandenburg in the west (Berlin the capital) and East Prussia in the east; located in the northern part of the HRE; land is very flat with little natural resources; near the Baltic Sea -Balance of Power and its purpose

To make sure one country does not dominate Europe; to make sure countries keep their sovereignty Sweden
-Control of the Baltic
The “Swedish lake” consisted of present-day Sweden, Finland, Estonia, half of Latvia, and much of the coastlines of Poland and Germany -Religion
-Gustavus Adolphus
In the 30 years war he made Sweden the supreme power of northern Europe -Queen Christina
Conceded much authority to the estates (each territory had its own laws and representative institutions); absorbed by religion and philosophy eventually abdicated and converted to Catholicism -Size of military

40,000; had the highest ratio of soldiers to population-1:25 Austria
-Know the 3 territories under Austrian control and their ethnic makeup (1.German Austria, 2.Czech Bohemia, 3.Magyar Hungarians) -Leopold I (1658–1705)
-Control of Bohemia
As punishment for rebelling against Austrian rule (30 years war) Bohemians lost the right to elect a monarch; the Austrians named themselves the hereditary rulers; replaced Bohemian nobles who had supported the war with a new nobility of Czechs, Germans, Italians, Spaniards, and Irish -Turkish intrusion of 1683

The Turks push to the gates of Vienna and laid a siege on the capital; after this the Turkish power ebbs; with the help of the Polish cavalry Austrians broke the siege and mount a counteroffensive -Treaty of Karlowitz 1699

The Ottoman Turks had to surrender almost all of Hungary to the Austrians -Prince Eugene of Savoy
Brought modern French methods of bureaucracy/military to Austria (French himself) Russia
-Tsar Alexei (1645-76)
Tried to extend state authority by imposing new administrative structures and taxes=> Moscow and other cities erupt into bloody riot=> social code of 1649 Dramatically increased the size of the army; wanting exclusive control over state policy Assembly of the land never met again after 1653; imposed control over the Russian Orthodox Church -Social Code of 1649

Assigned all subjects to a hereditary class according to their current occupation or state needs Slaves and free peasants were merged into a serf class where they could not change occupations or move- “tied to the soil” and their noble masters -Stephen Razin’s rebellion 1667

Rebellion promised liberation from noble landowners, local governors, and Moscow courtiers Captured 4 years later and was dismembered; head and limbs put on display- body thrown to the dogs -Landlord / serf relationship

Serfs under ownership of landlord
-Old Believers
Rejected church efforts to bring Russian worship in line with Byzantine tradition Endured exile, prison, torture; whole communities starved of burned rather than submit

5-3, 5-4: Constitutionalism in England
-Know the Stuart Kings in order:
James I, Charles I, Charles II, James II, William and Mary, Anne - James I Stuart (1603-25)
-Divine right theory
“True Law of Free Monarchy”
-Charles I (1625-49)
-1628 Petition of Right
Agrees not to levy taxes without the consent of parliament; so he plans to avoid parliament -Ship Money Case – John Hampden
Crown won the court case but many refused to pay what they considered an illegal tax; because Charles I did not want to call parliament into session raised revenues by turning “ship money” (a levy on seaports in times of emergency) into an annual tax -Archbishop Laud

Imposed increasingly elaborate ceremonies in the Anglican church, when puritans cry “popery” they are ordered to the Court of the Star Chamber controlled by king=> whippings, brandings, noses and ears cut; tried to impose the same policy in Scotland but it backfired -English Civil War (1642-49)

-Know the causes- political/financial, religious
Believed that parliament had no right to share power with him; refused to call parliament from 1629-1640- this infuriated M.Ps (puritans) who saw this as a violation of the Magna Carta Financial
Desperate for money…if he didn’t call parliament they couldn’t approve taxes/funds; forces people to buy noble titles; imposed fines for the star chamber; imposed ship money taxes in all towns Religious

The rising puritan faction feared a shift to Catholicism; Queen Henrietta was a French catholic; Archbishop Laud increased the ceremonies/rituals of the Anglican church- Laud slit the noses, cropped ears, branded faces of rebellious puritans -Know its 2 other names

Revolt of the Puritans, Revolt of Parliament
Fought for the royal army
Fought for the New Model Army (bowl haircuts)
-Oliver Cromwell
Leads the New Model Army
Rump Parliament grants him position of Chairman of the Council of State (Puritan Republic) Enforces strict Calvinism
Subdued Ireland
Abolished the Rump parliament and made himself Lord Protector (dictatorship) -New social movements
Emerged from the disbanded New Model Army; insisted that Parliament meet annually , that members be paid so as to allow common people to participate, and that all male heads of households be allowed to vote; wanted to “level” social differences -Quakers

Believed in equality and “inner light” (individual religious inspiration); believed anyone (man or woman) inspired by a direct experience from God could teach -Diggers
Promotes rural communism- collective ownership of all property -Ranters
Believed in pantheism; very religious
-Long Parliament/ Rump Parliament / Execution of the King
Long Parliament:
Charles I gets his money and agrees not to dissolve parliament or impose taxes; lead by Pym (1640-1648) Rump Parliament:
Pride’s Purge rids the parliament of Presbyterians leaving behind Independents Abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords and set up a Puritan Republic with Cromwell as Chairman of the Council of State *note*- Presbyterians wanted a Calvinist church with some central authority, whereas Independents favored autonomous congregations free from other church government Execution of the King:

Rump parliament found Charles I guilty of attempting to establish “an unlimited and tyrannical power” -Conquest of Ireland
Anti-English rebels in Ireland seized the occasion for troubles between king and Parliament to revolt in 1641; in 1649 Cromwell went to Ireland with a large force and defeated the rebels while massacring garrisons and their priests; Cromwell had Scottish immigrants settle in the county of Ulster -Commonwealth / Protectorate (1649-1660)

-Anti-Dutch Navigation Acts of 1651
Allowed imports only if they were carried on English ships or came directly from the producers of the goods -Puritan social changes
Closed the theaters, not bear baiting, no cock fighting, no gambling, closed ale houses, no swearing, no elaborate Christmas celebration

-Charles II (1660-1685)
The throne goes back to the rightful heir after an interregnum -Disasters of 1665/66
Great fire
Firebreak used to stop fire
-Secret Treaty of Dover 1670
Charles II promised Catholic conversion of England in return for war money from Louis XIV -Declaration of Indulgence 1673
Catholics allowed to serve in government/army
-Test Act 1673
Excluded Catholics from government/army, to prove Anglican must take protestant communion -James II (1685-88)
-Religious issues
He was very catholic leaning and his son the “warming pan baby” would be the same -Glorious Revolution of 1688**
-William and Mary: what they received + gave up
Gives: signs the bill of rights, therefore absolute power sacrificed Gets: English army, navy, money to fight Louis XIV (protect the Dutch) Parliament
Gives: commitment to William’s wars
Gets: bill of rights- true constitutional monarchy and parliamentary rights -Bill of Rights
William and Mary agree to not raise a standing army or to levy taxes without parliament’s consent, to call meetings of parliament at least every three years, to guarantee free elections to parliamentary seats, and to abide by parliament’s decisions and not suspend duly passed laws -Toleration Act

Granted all protestants freedom of worship, though non-Anglicans still excluded from universities; Catholics got no rights but were more often left alone to worship privately -Know in GREAT DETAIL: why 1688 is a triumph for Parliament and Constitutionalism but NOT Democracy Power shifts from the king to the oligarchy (genty)

The parliament consists of the gentry
Common man cannot vote, easily lead by demigods

5-5: Dutch Republic
Stadholder (from the house of orange in Holland) shares power with the Estates General Individual 7 provinces run by oligarchies of successful merchant regents -Regents
Rich merchants that effectively controlled the internal affairs of each providence and through the Estates General named the stadholder -Estates General
An assembly made up of deputies from each providence
The executive officer responsible defense and for representing the state at all ceremonial occasions -House of Orange
House where the stadholder always came from
William I and William III
-Bank of Amsterdam
Low interest rates, provider of capital
-Culture / Society / Religion
Calvinist; but high tolerance for other religions
Most-educated; large reading public
Society fostered public enterprise for men and work in home for women Middle class supported the visual arts (especially painting to an unprecedented degree) -Competition with England and France

Naval wars with England and land wars with France over mercantilist policies -Economy
Dominated overseas commerce with their shipping
Ship building

5-6: Women, Social Life in Cities
-New roles for women
Salons were presided over by women
Encouraged male authors and wrote themselves
-Differences between “common” culture/activities and “elite” culture French vs. vernacular
Village fairs/festivals vs. theater/concerts
Manners- no spitting, double-dipping
Religious superstition vs. scientific explanation
Literacy rates
Dress/clothes- fabric- cotton/lace (rich), wool/linen(poor)
-Aspects of middle-class lifestyle
Houses with multiple rooms- privacy
New consumption items- mirrors, clocks, coffee
Food consumption- meat/wine
Patrons of the arts
Kept domestic servants
-Systematic methods of suppressing the poor
Hospitals were a confinement for beggars
Women’s religious associations set up asylums to confine/rehabilitate prostitutes Hospices set up where orphans learned order/respect
-“Social Ladder” – classes in society
Landed nobles
Officials, merchants, professionals, land owners
Artisans, shopkeepers
Unemployed poor

5-7: Atlantic System and the World Economy
-New products consumed by middle class
-Triangle trade
Europe bought slaves in west Africa-> , sold them to colonies in North/South America and the Caribbean, bought commodities like coffee/sugar produced by colonial plantations, sold goods in European ports for refinement/reshipment -Caribbean/American goods

Rum, iron, gunpowder, cloth, furs, tobacco, molasses, whale oil, lumber, livestock, sugar, rice, silk, flour, fish, tools, indigo -Plantation economy
Large tracts of land producing staples with the use of slave labor the most cost effective -State trading companies
British East India Company
-Slavery in the Americas – power point
-Racism/justification of slavery
Justify actions by demeaning the mental and spiritual qualities of the enslaved Some inherently meant to be slaves
Akin to apes
-Trade with India
Companies competed for spices, cotton, silk, calico
France and England extended power in region as Muslim rulers lost control -Birth of modern consumer society
Economic expansion/ population growth=> consumer society
-Causation factors
-New attitudes towards material goods

5-8: Consolidation of European State System
-Review all notes on Louis XIV 1643-1715
-Conflict between Louis XIV and William III 1689-1702
Louis XIV sought territorial expansion by acquiring the Netherlands (stadholder was William III) -League of Augsburg/Grand Alliance
Alliance included Britain, the Dutch Republic, Sweden, Austria, and Spain- fought Louis Xiv to a stalemate in the War of the League of Augsburg (9 years war); hostilities resume 4 years later with the War of Spanish Succession -End of Spanish Hapsburgs

Mentally physically feeble Charles II ends the line when he can’t produce an heir -Philip IV
Father of Charles II; married to niece Mariana of Austria
-Charles II 1665-1700
Ends the Spanish Hapsburg line
-The Will
Charles II chooses Louis XIV’s great-grand son Philip a san heir -Philip V Bourbon
Leader after the War of Spanish Succession; must renounce claim to the French throne -Peace of Utrecht 1713-14
(+) got Spain (Bourbons on the throne)
(-) lost eastern Canada to England
(+) kept Alsace Lorraine
(-) did not get the low countries
(+) got Gibraltar
(+) get French eastern Canada
(+) kept France in check/balance of power
(+) victory for Protestantism
(+) Spain is asiento- took over slave trade
(+) kept their independence
(+) forts on the French border
(-) in a state of slow decline
(+) stabilize by Bourbon rule
(-) lose Gibraltar, asiento
(-) lost their Spanish brother
(+) got the Spanish Netherlands (now Austrian Netherlands)
(+) got parts of Italy
Savoy-Sardinia (eventually unites Italy)
(+) title of “king”
(+) slowly rising in power and prominence
(-) territory still in pieces
Prussia (eventually unites Germany)
(+) title of “king”
(+) slowly rising in power and prominence
(-) territory still in pieces
-Results of War of Spanish Succession
See above Peace of Utrecht
-Legacy of Louis XIV
-Louis XV
Successor of Louis XIV; his great-grandson
-Hanover Kings: George I, II, III only
Hanover House succeeded Anne (Stuart); were German and Protestant

5-9: Russia’s Emergence as a Power
-“Westernization” methods
St. Petersburg- “Window to the West”-now had greater access to the west because easier to travel by water instead of land Technical schools/ Academy of science
Importation of foreign advisors
Western dress- no beards
Translation of foreign literature/newspapers
1st Russian navy
Modern army
Holy synod
State service for Boyars (nobles)- advancement based upon merit- “Table of Ranks” Mercantilism
Changed numerals to Arabic numerals
-Peter’s personal characteristics
Very strong; sometimes sadistic; despised ceremony; 7ft tall -Differences between Russia and the West
Christian, but orthodox
Cyrillic language
Vast size
No middle class
Serfdom instead of free peasantry; serfs sold as property
Eastern influences in culture/dress- “westernization”
No reciprocal social contract between the tsar and his people -State Service
Compulsory and permanent
-Holy Synod
Bureaucracy of laymen under Peter I’s control; religion under state power -St. Petersburg
Warm water port for the navy; greater access to the western world -Serf / noble relationship
Serfs were the property of the nobles
-Great Embassy
Toured the western countries as a way to learn their methods; shipbuilding from the Dutch, military from the Prussians… -Peter’s foreign policy
Gain warm-water sea ports:
Baltic Sea (controlled by Sweden)
Great Northern War (1700-21) against Charles XII; Battle of a Poltava/ scorched earth policy=> St. Petersburg Black Sea (controlled by Ottoman Turks)
Unsuccessful; start of perennial prussure
-Charles XII of Sweden r.1697-1718
Fought Peter for the warm water port (now St. Petersburg); Swedish -Territory of Sweden
Had the warm water ports
-Great Northern War 1700-21
Against Sweden/ Charles XII
Battle of Poltava/scorched earth policy
Result: Russian control of the east Baltic, demise of the Swedish empire -Battle of Poltava 1709
Scorched earth policy; for St. Petersburg
-“Scorched Earth Policy”
Retreat and bring them into Russia; then it snows and the other country must go back where there is no food

AP European History-Review List Unit 6

Where did we come from and where are we going?
Political Eras:
1500s: Age of New Monarchy
1600s: Age of Absolutism
1700s: Age of Enlightened Despots---> Catherine II, Frederick II, and Joseph II 1800s: Age of Constitutionalism

Intellectual Eras:
1500s: Age of Skepticism
1600s: Age of Science
1700s: Age of Enlightenment/Reason
1800s: Age of Romanticism

Philosophers oppressed= 1) Monarchy, 2) Church, and 3) State

Movements, Events, and Developments that helped to lay the groundwork for the Age of Reason: 1) Reformation, 2) Divine Right Absolutism, 3) Renaissance , 4) Printing Press, 5) Age of Exploration/Navigation, 6) Moral Relativism (exposure to other cultures), 7) Age of Science (inductive reasoning)

Attitudes and Concepts:
1) A sense and optimism about the future
2) Each generation gets better
3) All people are equal, because we have the ability to reason

Precursors to Enlightenment: Science and Natural Law
-Natural Law
Laws of nature that give legitimacy to government and stand above the actions of any particular ruler or religious group - life, liberty, property Locke
-Skepticism (1500’s)
Total certainty is never attainable
Bayle, Montainge, Spinoza, and Descartes
Famous skeptic- total certainty is unattainable
“All that is certain is that nothing is certain”
Nothing is “barbarous”- other cultures are simply different -Bodin
Said there were three basic types of sovereignty: monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy Insisted only strong monarchical power offered hope for maintaining order Rejected the doctrine of the right to resist tyrannical authority- laid foundations for absolutism -Grotius

Natural law should govern politics not scripture, religious authority, or tradition Governments have to defend natural rights= life, body, freedom, and honor No torture
-New scientific method
Based on experimental observation and mathematical deduction Inductive thinking
-Ptolemy and Aristotle
Christian doctrine had incorporated their scientific teachings Ptolemy
geocentrism - Earth at the center of the cosmos; above the earth were the moon, the stars, and the planets (in circular spheres) were fixed; beyond these fixed spheres dwelt God Aristotle
Universe is unchanging
-Inductive vs. deductive thinking
Inductive- observation and experimental research (Bacon father of inductive reasoning) Deductive- reasoning from self-evident principles (Descarte) Using one’s reason-”the courage to think for yourself” (Kant) -Copernicus

Father of Heliocentrism
Heliocentrism; thought orbits were circular (wrong)
Earth and planets revolve around sun
-Brahe (senior)
The man with the Golden Nose
Actual observation of the night sky-data; showed that the earth was not unchanging- saw a supernova (a star blew up) -Kepler (junior)
Father of Planetary Motion
Mathematical calculations => “laws of planetary motion” 1. Orbits of the planets are elliptical
2.planets move more slowly away from the sun and faster toward it -Galileo
Italian- close to papal authority in Rome
Developed telescope- saw mountains, craters, moon (looked like earth further proving that the earth is not unchanging) Proved heliocentrism- moons of Jupiter→ revolve around the planet (big bodies have smaller bodies revolve around them)- phases of Venus Father of the Modern Telescope

Law of Gravity: objects of different mass fall at the same mass -Vesalius
New study of anatomy
Corrected errors of Greek Scientist Galen
Heart→ mechanism to pump/circulate blood
Father of Blood Circulation
Described the circulatory system of blood through the veins and arteries, pumped by the heart -Bacon
Englishman known as the father of inductive reasoning /empiricism All knowledge/conclusions must be reached after observation, experimentation and data gathering Catholic church responsible for much misinformation about the world -Descartes

Mathematics is the key to understanding the natural world
Deductive thinker who doubted all that could be doubted, then proceeded from “Cogito Ergo Sum” Staunch Catholic
I think, therefore I am
-Reasons for belief in witchcraft
In a time of economic crisis, plague, warfare, and the clash of religious differences, trials provided an outlet for social stress and anxiety superstition
-People accused of witchcraft
80% female
Accusers were almost always better off than those they accused midwives
-Gregorian calendar
Pope Gregory XIII ordered calendar reform to compute more accurately the exact date on which Easter should fall Because no one could calculate the exact length of a day calendar increasingly out of phase with the seasons Is astronomically correct but has defects: months are different lengths, holidays not on the same day each year

Social Contract and Birth of Enlightenment
-Philosophies of Hobbes and Locke
Supporter of absolutism: necessitated by people’s inherent self interest People exchange personal for safety, security/ protection of natural rights by the Leviathan Government authority comes from the social contract, not divine right “Leviathan”

humans inherently selfish
owe obedience to ruler and have no right to participate
Supporter of constitutionalism: people are mostly reasonable and orderly If government violates the social contract + fails to protect natural rights, people may overthrow it: defense of the Glorious Revolution 1688 We are a “tabula rasa” or blank slate at birth- good experiences make us good, bad experiences make us bad- key belief of modern liberalism “Two Treatises of Government”

humans generally cooperative
right to participate and can overthrow gov if they fail to protect natural rights -Dates of Enlightenment
1700-1789/ 18th Century
- Location of the Enlightenment
France, England, and the Netherlands (other places with education/urbanization)- also Russia -Definition of “philosophe”
Considered themselves part of a grand “republic of letters” that transcended national political boundaries a groups of French intellectuals who proclaimed that they were bringing the light of knowledge to their fellow creatures in the Age of Enlightenment United by ideals of reform, reason, and freedom

-Explain how the scientific advancements of the 1600s contributes to the Enlightenment The advancements discredited the church who used the theories of Aristotle and Ptolemy; people then began challenging traditional beliefs scientific authority displaced church authority- valued empiricism, rational thought, advancement, and progress -Newton– Universal Gravitation

Universal Gravitation-all bodies will exert an attractive force on other bodies of mass) Wrote “principia mathematica” all objects in the universe exert a force upon all others, proportional to its mass Made humans view the universe as an orderly machine, explainable through math, physics and reason, without reliance on religion Discovered “laws of motion”: ex.-object in motion tends to stay in motion -Inductive vs. deductive reasoning

Inductive- observation and experimental research
Deductive- reasoning from self-evident principles
-Pierre Bayle
A Huguenot refugee from Louis XV’s persecutions- launched a campaign for religious tolerance from the Dutch Republic Claimed to be a believer, yet his insistence on rational investigation seemed to challenge the authority of faith Said atheists might possess a moral code as effective as those of the devout moral relativism

-Moral Relativism
Customs varied: justice, freedom, property, good government, religion, and morality were all relative to the place Birth of the Enlightenment
-Know the “Legacy of the Enlightenment” chart
-Diderot “Encyclopedia”
Chief editor of the Encyclopedia
Attempt to gather information about all aspects of life- science, music, art, history… -Important theories of:
-Social Contract
All individuals should submit their own interests to the general will of the community -General Will
Seen as an advocate of true democracy
-“Emile” / education
Educator should only facilitate opportunities for learning
Learn through curiosity/ by experience
No book learning
French noble, wrote “Spirit of the Laws”
Opposed absolutism and divine right of kings
Favored constitutionalism like Britain post 1688, called for a separation of powers between the three branches of government - Marquise de Pompadour
Louis XV’s mistress
Popular salon hostess, patronized architect and painters
Helped run France at times on behalf of the ineffectual Louis XV -Voltaire
French writer associated with freedom of the press, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion -Salons
Gave intellectual life an anchor outside the royal court and the church controlled universities Women held salons to educate themselves and participate directly in reform Gatherings provided a forum for new ideas and an opportunity to establish new intellectual contacts Main topics were love, science, philosophy, and literature

-Atheism/Deism = Watchmaker of God
After Newton people could conceive of the universe as an eternally existing, self-perpetuating machine, in which God’s intervention was unnecessary Atheism
Did not believe in any kind of god
Believed in God but gave him no active role in earthly affairs -“Ecrasez l’infame”
Voltaire: Crush the infamous thing! (religious bigotry and intolerance- especially Catholic) -John Wesley – Methodism
A term evoked by insistence on strict self-discipline and a methodical approach to religious study and observance Emphasized an intense personal experience of salvation and a life of thrift, abstinence, and hard work -“Great Awakening” 1740s

A religious revival that underlined the limits of reason
In the north American colonies revivalist preachers drew in thousands of fervent believers Adam Smith
-Wealth of Nations 1776
Explained how individual interests naturally harmonized with those of the whole society -Contrast with Mercantilism
Mercantilism had restrictions on where you could ship
Free trade v. closed system- government involvement in mercantilist government -Invisible Hand Market Forces
1.self interest leads people to supply the products society demands a.k.a. the “profit motive” 2.competition keeps self interest in check- must provide the best goods at the lowest prices to retain customers -Problems with Free Market Capitalism

not self-sufficient
-Laissez Faire / Role of Government
Free economy from government intervention/control
Government should provide security= national defense, internal order, and public works -Division of Labor
specialization leads to increased productivity
small substeps to make one whole item
-Free Trade / tariff issue
No tariffs promote free trade

Enlightened Despotism (1715-1814)
-Definition of Enlightened Despotism
autocrats who ruled under enlightened principles
no divine right - justification though usefulness(absolutism justified by utility) decisions based on reason
religious toleration
stress education
impulse to reform society
codified, uniform laws
repression of local authority, nobles, church
quick tempo
-War of Austrian Succession 1740-48
-Charles VI Hapsburg of Austria
Had no male heir
Pragmatic sanction
-Pragmatic Sanction
To ensure that Austria would not be “carved up”- guaranteed the territorial integrity of Austria upon his death issued an edict to ensure the Hapsburg hereditary possession can be inherited by his daughter Intended to protect the inheritance of Maria Theresa

-Maria Theresa of Austria
Daughter of Charles VI
Slow reformer and very Catholic
Invaded by Frederick II
-Frederick II “The Great”
Upon Charles VI’s death, he attacked Silesia because of “reason of state” -Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle 1748
“status quo”- Austria survived but lost Silesia- Start of German dualism ended the War of Austrian Succession
Austrian recognized Prussia’s possession of Silesia
-Seven Year’s War 1756-63
-Diplomatic Revolution
Austria makes an alliance with France (Hapsburgs and Bourbons) Alliance official with the marriage of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette Fearful of a rising Prussia- German Dualism
-3 locations of the War
Europe, America “French and Indian War”, India
-Treaty of Paris 1763
Prussia keeps all territory, including Silesia
France cedes Canada to Great Britain, the U.S. interior to Spain, removes its armies from India- gets to keep the west Indies Great Britain becomes the supreme naval power and begins its domination of India and the United States -First Partition of Poland 1772

Russia, Austria, Prussia all take parts of Poland in order to avoid a larger war -Reforms of:
-Frederick II (Prussia)
“the 1st servant of the state”; extension of education to all classes; professional bureaucracy and civil servants; uniform judicial system/abolished torture; agricultural innovations (potatoes/turnips); religious freedom -Joseph II (Austria)

Equal punishment regardless of class; equal taxation regardless of class; complete freedom of the press; toleration for all religions (civil rights for Jews); uniform law code; abolished serfdom; school ordinance -Catherine II (Russia)

Restrictions on torture; religious toleration (except for old believers); 50 gubernii (50 states make Russia easier to govern); education for girls; 1767 Legislative Commission (provided information on the state of the Russian people); trained grandson Alexander I (on a side note: friends with Diderot, Rousseau, and Voltaire, Potemkin- chief advisor) -Limits of reform

enlightenment taught citizens to question everything
training a future leader would threaten own position
too fast paced, humans generally resist change (Joseph II)

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