AP Euro notes ch 1

Topics: World War I, World War II, Ottoman Empire Pages: 7 (1670 words) Published: March 9, 2014
0Chapter 25 Outline:
The Beginning of the Twentieth-Century Crisis: War and Revolution

I. The Road to World War I
Notes
A Nationalism and Internal Dissent
B Nation-States caused conflict instead of companionship
i. Intended to unite nations
ii. Rivalries over colonial and commercial interests
C Crooked Actions
i. Governments avoiding war being punished, instigators seen as heroes ii. Allies/Enemies were formed
iii. Each nation-state thought of themselves as individuals
D Self-Segregation
i. “Not all ethnic groups had achieved the goal of nationhood.” ii. Minorities wanted to create their own nation-states
E Mini-summary: The nation-state idea was thought up with the intention of unifying Europe, but ended up putting the different states and ethnicities against each other in a battle for power and domination. F Militarism

G Large army growth after 1900
i. Conscription – regular practice in Western countries with US/Britain being big exceptions H Russia had the largest army
i. 1.3 million men
I France, Germany, Britain, Italy, and Austria with many soldiers as well J Oversized militaries + power-hungry leaders = chaos
K Mini-summary: The steady growth of number of all the nation's military men was causing an uproar, causing military leaders to mobilize more men and create new plans. L The Outbreak of War: The Summer of 1914

M Rivalry between Austria-Hungary and Russia
i. Domination issues
ii. Tensions
iii. Mistrust/Hatred
N Crisis: 1908-1913
O Association of Austria Archduke and his wife assassinated at the same time i. Francis Ferdinand, December 18, 1863 – June 28, 1914
ii. Sophia Ferdinand, March 1, 1868 – June 28, 1914
P Austrian leaders were backed up by Germany, Serbia was backed up but Russia i. Tensions between even more countries grew
Q Ultimatum
i. Austria to Serbia
ii. Serbia's demands so high that Austria refused to fulfill all of them R Austria issued war on Serbia – July 28
S Germany issued war with Russia – August 1
T Great Britain declared war on Germany – Aug 4
i. Allies were formed
U ii. Germany, Austria, & Italy vs. France, Great Britain, & Russia V Mini-summary: Many countries were brought into the crossfire of war by default, just by siding with different countries on a war that was only supposed to involve 2. Vocab and Q’s

Liberal: A supporter or member of a Liberal Party.
Brinkmanship: The art or practice of pursuing a dangerous policy to the limits of safety before stopping, typically in politics. Why were all the nation-states so quick to turn on each other? Conscription: Compulsory enlistment for state service, typically into the military. Was Serbian government directly involved with the assassination of Austria's Archduke? The Schlieffen Plan: The German General Staff's early 20th century overall strategic plan for victory in a possible future war where it might find itself fighting on two fronts .Summary: This war all started when an idea was presented. This idea was supposed to be good for Europe, it was supposed to benefit everyone. If everyone cooperated, it would have, but unfortunately there were a few countries that went a little power hungry. “A few countries” turned into whole groups of people with a certain ethnicity not wanting to mix with others. In turn, the idea was dropped, but the thirst for dominance was not. The number of military men per country sky rocketed, as everyone competed with everyone for the title of most powerful and intimidating nation. Soon, an meager rivalry between 2 countries escalated as Austria and Germany were quick to point their fingers at Russia and Serbia for the assassination of the Austrian Archduke. Soon, many other European countries took sides in a war they were not even involved in, thus creating a hugely unnecessary war that was basically half of Europe against the other half. Reflection:

There were a lot of miscommunications, misjudgments, and mistrusts within these countries. Perhaps this shows that a...
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