victors (mainly the alliance of Russia, Austria, Prussia, and Great Britain) restored the French boundaries of 1792 and the Bourbon dynasty. 2.
They made other changes in the boundaries of Europe, establishing Prussia as a "sentinel" against France, and created a new kingdom out of Belgium and Holland. 3.
It was believed that the concept of the balance of power--an international equilibrium of political and military forces--would preserve peace in Europe. 4.
But the demands of the victors, especially the Prussians and the Russians, for compensation threatened the balance. a.
The Russian demands for Poland and the Prussian wish for Saxony led to conflict among the powers. b.
Castlereagh, Metternich, and Talleyrand forced Russia and Prussia into a compromise whereby Russia got part of Poland and Prussia received two-fifths of Saxony. C.
Intervention and repression
Under Metternich, Austria, Prussia, and Russia led a crusade against liberalism. a.
They formed a Holy Alliance to check future liberal and revolutionary activity. b.
When liberals succeeded in Spain and in the Two Sicilies, these powers intervened to restore conservatism. c.
But Latin American republics broke from Spain.
Metternich's policies also dominated the German Confederation--through which the Carlsbad Decrees were issued in 1819. e.
These decrees repressed subversive ideas and organizations in the 38 German states. D.
Metternich and conservatism
Metternich represented the view that the best state blended monarchy, bureaucracy, and aristocracy. 2.
He hated liberalism, which he claimed stirred up the lower classes and caused war and bloodshed. a.
Liberalism also stirred up national aspirations in central Europe, which could lead to war and the breakup of the Austrian Empire. b.
The empire, which was dominated by the minority Germans, contained many ethnic groups, including Hungarians and Czechs, which was a potential source of weakness and dissatisfaction. II.
Radical ideas and early...
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