SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY
Handout No. 2
Anthrophology- coined from two Greek words anthropos which means “man” or “human being” and logos which means “knowledge”. Four Main Fields of Anthropology
1. Physical or biological anthropology-studies human beings through genetics, inherited traits, evolution and adaptation. It is called physical anthropology because the data it uses are mainly physical to gather information on the evolutionary development of man. 2. Cultural Anthropology-it examines the diversity of human culture of the present and even the recent past. Cultural anthropologists investigate the culture and social organization of a particular group of people, socialization, traditions, and gender relations. 3. Linguistic Anthropology-Lingustics is a science of language. Lingustic anthropology studies the process of human communication. It examines the relationship between language and other aspects of culture like ethnicity, social status and socialization. 4. Archeology-field of anthropology that examines the distribution and form of artifacts, and the cultural patterns or movement of ancient life. It aims to reconstruct man’s past behavior by studying fossils and artifacts. Franz Boas-Father of American Anthropology.
Early Beginnings of Culture and Society
The present modern human being had evolved through natural mutation, normal variation, and natural selection. The evolution is characterized by developments which occurred six million years or more ago, during the successive divisions of tertiary period. The period has five epochs: 1. Paleocene-also known as “early recent” lasted around 65 million years ago. Marked by demise of dinosaurs, as well as existence of pre-primates like femur. 2. Eocene-lasted 30-45 million years ago. It is marked by warm tropical climates, along with the appearance of the order of mammals and prosimian-like primates. Anthropoids appreared during this period. 3. Oligocene-lasted around 30 million years...
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