Anatomy & Physiology
Chapter 1 Quiz
Chapter 1 – Intro to Human Anatomy & Physiology
What is anatomy?
Means “to cut open” or “to dissect”
Deals with structure and organization of body parts
2 types of anatomy
Macroscopic (Gross) Anatomy
What is physiology?
Study of the function of anatomical structures
FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION
Describe the relationship between form and function. Identify examples. Know the major structures & functions of the 11 body systems Integumentary system- protects underlying tissue, regulates body temperature, house a variety of sensory receptors, and synthesizes certain products Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands
Skeletal system- Support and move body parts. Parts provide frameworks and protective shields for softer tissues, attaches muscles, and act with muscles when body parts move. Bones, ligaments, cartilages
Muscular system- Contract and pull ends close together. Muscles provide forces that cause body movement. Maintains posture and body heat. Muscles
Nervous system- Nerve cells within organs of system use electrochemical signals called nerve impulses to communicate with one another and with muscles and glands. Sensory neurons detect changes in and out of body. Nerves carry signals from brain to body. Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs
Endocrine system- Includes hormones that alter the metabolism of the target tissue. Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal gland, thymus gland Cardiovascular system- Blood is transferred throughout the body as well as nutrients, gases, hormones, and wastes. Heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, blood
Lymphatic system- transports tissue fluid back to blood stream and carries certain fatty substances away from the digestive organs. Also help remove disease causing microorganisms and viruses from tissue fluid. Digestive system- Breaks down food into molecules and absorbs it for energy. Materials that can’t be absorbed are returned back to the outside and eliminated Mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine Respiratory system- Exchanges gases between blood and air. Oxygen passes from air within the lungs into the blood. Carbon dioxide leaves blood and enters the air. Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
Urinary system- removes wastes from blood and helps maintain the bodys water and electrolyte balance. Produces urine and transports it outside the body Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
Reproductive system- Produces new organisms like itself
Men: scrotum, testes, epididymis, vasa deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, penis, and urethra Women: ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, vulva Identify the 10 characteristics of life
Identify the 5 requirements of organisms
Describe the importance of homeostasis and negative feedback loops In order to survive changes in the external environment, an organism stays in homeostasis or the maintenance of a stable internal environment Negative feedback loops are the signals that regulate homeostasis. If there is a change in the body, the negative feedback loops send signals and cause reactions to return it back to normal.
Know and label on a diagram the organization of life from atom all the way to organism Atoms, molecules, macromolecules, organelles, cell, tissue, organ systems, organism
Identify the location of all the body cavities
Dorsal Cavity (back)
Cranial cavity (head)
Vertebral canal (spine)
Ventral Cavity (upper body)
Thoracic cavity (chest area)
Mediastinum- separates thoracic cavity into two...
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