Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Body Study Guide

Topics: Epidermis, Bone, Bone marrow Pages: 6 (1367 words) Published: October 1, 2013
Unit 4 Lecture Study Guide
Use the lecture folder to help you complete this guide. The more detail you can provide the better prepared for the test you will be. 1. What is the integumentary system and its primary characteristics? The integumentary system is the skin and its derivatives; it provides external protection for the body. Its characteristics are: covers the entire body, accounts for about 7% of total body weight, pliable, yet durable, thickness: 1.5 to 4.0 mm, composed of the epidermis and dermis. 2. Describe and give at least one example of each of the functions of the integumentary system. Protection – 3 different barriers: Chemical Barriers (skin secretion and melanin) Physical/Mechanical Barriers – continuity of the skin and hardness of keratinized cells Biological Barriers – Langerhans’ cells, macrophages, and DNA

Body temperature- Production of copious amounts of sweat to dissipate heat; Constriction of dermal blood vessels to retain heat

Cutaneous Sensation- cutaneous sensory receptors (nervous system)

Metabolic Functions - Synthesis of Vitamin D – increases calcium absorption in the body; Chemical conversion of many substances

Blood Reservoir- vasoconstriction and vasodilation

Excretion- elimination of nitrogen-containing wastes, salt, and water 3. Differentiate between chemical, physical/mechanical and biological barriers provided by the integumentary system. Be sure to provide a minimum of one example for each. Chemical- skin secretion and melanin (acid mantle)

Physical/Mechanical- continuity of the skin and hardness of keratinized cells (oxygen carbon dioxide and steroids) Biological- Langerhans’ cells, macrophages, and DNA (the cells in the epidermis present antigens to lymphocytes)

4. Create a chart that helps you differentiate the epidermis and dermis. Be sure to include things such as cell composition, cell populations and layers. Epidermis
Dermis
Stratified squamous epithelium
Five layer (from top to bottom):
Stratum corneum- top layer and fully keratinized, 20-30 layers thick, protect skin from abrasion and penetration Stratum granulosum- 3-5 cell layers thick, keratinocytes produce keratin and squamous cells flatten as they are pushed upward Stratum spinosum- prickly layer, melanin granules and Langerhans’ cells abundant in the layer Stratum basale- deepest layer, single layer thick, contains melanocytes and Merkel cells Stratum lucidum- clear layer, found only in thick skin between the Stratum granulosum and stratum croneum, only a few cell layers thick (palms of hands, fingertips, and soles of feet)

Strong, flexible connective tissue ( collagen, elastin, and reticular fibers) Papillae from upper dermis form ridges in the epidermis for grip 20% of thickness Reticular layer of lower dermis 80% of thickness made up of dense irregular connective tissue Pigments which affect skin color

Melanin
Carotene
Hemoglobin
Cyanosis- bluish hue to the skin due to heart failure or respiratory distress Erythema- reddish hue to the skin due to blushing or fever
Pallor or blanching- pale skin hue due emotional stress
Jaundice- yellow hue to the skin due to liver disorder
Bronzing of the skin due to Addison’s disease
Hematoma- blood leaks out of capillaries due to trauma and clots under the skin

5. Order the layers of the epidermis from outermost to deepest. Stratum corneum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum spinosum
Stratum basale
Stratum lucidum
6. What contributes to skin color?
Melanin- (only pigment produced in the skin) varies in color from yellow to brown to black Carotene- yellow- orange pigment found in plants which accumulates in the thick epidermis, this is why the soles of your feet appear orange. Hemoglobin- red from the red blood cells

7. List the appendages of the skin and what purpose they serve. Nails- the nail matrix contains rapidly dividing cells that eventually become dead and keratinized; keratinized nails protect the...
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