MARKETING IN PRACTICE
ADVERTISING DESIGN: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS AND TYPES OF APPEALS
• The creative brief
Designing an effective advertising message begins with understanding the objective of the ad and the target audience. Then, the advertising group agrees on the message theme, which is the outline of the key ideas the commercial will convey. The account executive or client must provide the support and documentation for the advertising theme or claim. Finally, the creative must be aware of any constraints to be included.
• Advertising theory
In developing an advertisement for an advertising campaign, there are theoretical frameworks that can be useful, including: 1) the hierarchy of effects model, 2) a means-ends theory, and 3) visual and verbal frameworks.
1. Hierarchy of Effects
The hierarchy of effects model is helpful in clarifying the objectives of an advertising campaign as well as the objective of a particular advertisement. The model suggests that a consumer or a business buyer moves through a series of six steps when being convinced to make a purchase:
f. The actual purchase.
Although the hierarchy of effects model helps creative to understand the impact of an advertisement on viewers, some of its underlying principles have been questioned. For instance, there are times when consumers may first make a purchase and then later develop knowledge, liking, preference, and conviction.
The major benefit of the hierarchy of effects model is that it is one method that can be used to identify the typical steps consumers and businesses take when making purchases. The components of the hierarchy of effects approach highlight the various responses that advertising or other marketing communications must accomplish.
The hierarchy of effects model has many similarities with theories regarding attitudes and attitudinal change, especially regarding cognitive, affective, and conative components. The most common sequence that takes place when an attitude forms is:
Cognitive ( affective ( conative
2. Means-Ends Theory
This approach suggests that an advertisement should contain a message, or means leads the consumer to a desired end state. The end states are various personal values consumers hold, many of which are shown in Figure. [pic]
Means-ends theory is the basis of a model called MECCAS. MECCAS stand for Means-Ends Conceptualization of Components for Advertising Strategy. MECCAS model suggests five elements should be utilized in creating ads:
a. The product’s attributes.
b. Consumer benefits.
c. Leverage points.
d. Personal values.
e. The executional framework.
A means-end chain for milk is displayed in Figure 6.3. The MECCAS concept also applies to business-to-business advertisements. The personal values of members of the buying centre might include job security for making good decisions, self-fulfilment, wisdom, and social acceptance by other members of the buying group.
3. Leverage Points
A leverage point is the feature of the ad that leads the viewer to transform the advertising message into a personal value. To construct a quality leverage point, the creative must be able to build a pathway that connects a product benefit with the potential buyer’s value system.
Creative spend considerable amounts of time designing ads with powerful leverage points. Executional frameworks and various types of appeals, as described in the upcoming pages, are the tools creative use to help the consumer make the transition from being aware of a product’s benefits to incorporating it with his or her value system.
4. Verbal and Visual Images
A key decision made by the creative determines the degree of emphasis given to the visual elements of the ad versus the verbal elements. Combining visual with verbal elements can cause a message to be dual-coded...
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