EXAMPLES OF ACCOUNTS FALLING UNDER EACH ACCOUNTING EQUATION ELEMENT:
Cash - A current asset account which includes currency, coins, checking accounts, and undeposited checks received from customers. The amounts must be unrestricted. (Restricted cash should be recorded in a different account.) Petty Cash Fund - A current asset account that represents an amount of cash for making small disbursements for postage due, supplies, etc. Notes Receivable - An asset representing the right to receive the principal amount contained in a written promissory note. Principal that is to be received within one year of the balance sheet date is reported as a current asset. Any portion of the notes receivable that is not due within one year of the balance sheet date is reported as a long term asset. Accounts Receivable - A current asset resulting from selling goods or services on credit (on account). Allowance for Bad Debts - A valuation account used to estimate the portion of a bank's loan portfolio that will ultimately be uncollectible. When a loan goes bad, the asset is removed from the books and the allowance for bad debt is charged for the book value of the loan. Also known as "loan-loss reserve." Accrued Interest Income - An accrual accounting method when interest that is either payable or receivable has been recognized, but not yet paid or received. Accrued interest occurs as a result of the difference in timing of cash flows and the measurement of these cash flows. Advances to Employees - An asset account used to record amounts given to an employee with the expectation of repayment. For example, if an employee is given money by a company and the money is expected to be repaid or spent for company purposes, the amount will be recorded in this current asset account until it is repaid or until the expense documentation is provided. Inventories - A current asset whose ending balance should report the cost of a merchandiser's products awaiting to be sold. The inventory of a manufacturer should report the cost of its raw materials, work-in-process, and finished goods. The cost of inventory should include all costs necessary to acquire the items and to get them ready for sale. Prepaid Expenses - A current asset representing amounts paid in advance for future expenses. As the expenses are used or expire, expense is increased and prepaid expense is decreased. Unused Supplies - Unused supplies as of the balance sheet date should be reported in the asset account Supplies or Supplies on Hand.
Property and Equipment - A major classification on the balance sheet. It is the second long term asset section after current assets. Included are land, buildings, leasehold improvements, equipment, furniture, fixtures, delivery trucks, automobiles, etc. that are owned by the company. Land - A long-term asset account that reports the cost of real property exclusive of the cost of any constructed assets on the property. Land usually appears as the first item under the balance sheet heading of Property, Plant and Equipment. Generally, land is not depreciated. Building - Buildings is a noncurrent or long-term asset account which shows the cost of a building (excluding the cost of the land). Buildings will be depreciated over their useful lives by debiting the income statement account Depreciation Expense and crediting the balance sheet account Accumulated Depreciation. Equipment - Equipment is a noncurrent or long-term asset account which reports the cost of the equipment. Equipment will be depreciated over its useful life by debiting the income statement account Depreciation Expense and crediting the balance sheet account Accumulated Depreciation (a contra asset account). Furniture & Fixtures - Long-term assets that are reported under the classification of property, plant, and equipment on a company's balance sheet. These assets are depreciated over their useful life. Accumulated Depreciation - Accumulated...
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