Descriptive terms are used to name skeletal muscles. Some names give the location in the body. The temporalis muscle is attached to the temporal bone in the skull. The brachialis muscle is attached to the humerus bone, but brachial refers to the main artery in the arm. Some muscles are named for their origins and insertions, like the genioglossus muscle, for example, originates at the chin (geneion) and inserts in the tongue (glossus). Some muscles are named for the arrangement of the fascicle groups. For example the rectus abdominus is the straight muscle that is in the adbominus. Relative position is another naming convention. The sphincter ani externus is an elliptical shaped muscle surrounding the anus and attached to the skin. In this case ani refers to the location and externus refers to superficial, or just under the skin. Distinct structural features are also used to name muscles. The quadriceps are named for four head muscles in the thigh; or the brevis adductor muscle which is a short muscle pulls the leg close to the body. There are also muscles named for what they do; the extensor carpi radialis longus muscle is a long muscle along the radial (lateral) border of the forearm; its primary function is extension at the carpus (wrist) (Martini, 2008).
Evaluate the major muscle groups of the upper and lower limbs and relate their similarities and differences to their function.
In the upper arm, the muscles responsible for flexing and extending the arm at the elbow joint are the biceps, brachialis, and triceps. In the upper leg, the muscles responsible for flexing and extending the limb at the knee are the hamstrings (biceps femoris, semimembranosus and semitendonosus muscles), the gastrocnemius (also affects foot movement), and the quadriceps femoris (YouTube, n.d.) .
In the lower arm, the two