A & P Chapter 2 Review

Topics: Atom Pages: 3 (668 words) Published: August 22, 2015
Chapter 2 Review: The Chemical Level of Organization
Chemistry Review:
Atoms- smallest units of matter, composed of subatomic particles Protons- positive charge, in nucleus
Neutrons- neutral charge, in nucleus
Electrons (e-)- negative charge, orbit nucleus (never touch it!) Atomic mass- protons + neutrons
Atomic number- number of protons
*Hydrogen only has one proton and one electron, no neutrons
When hydrogen loses its electron, it is often referred to as a “proton” (hydrogen ion) and has a +1 charge
Electrons circle the nucleus in orbitals or pathways
Closest orbit (shell) to nucleus, lowest energy, hold 2 eSecond shell out holds 8 e-, as does the 3rd atoms with unfilled shells are reactive and bind together to complete their shells Molecule- 2 or more atoms that share electrons (covalent bond) Compound- 2 or more different atoms, bond is not important (covalent or ionic) Covalent bond- atoms share electrons

Polar covalent bond- charged molecule due to unequal sharing of eNonpolar covalent bond- no charge, equal sharing of eIonic bond- atom that has lost e- (cation, +) or gained e- (anion, -) are attracted to each other Salt- ionic compound

Hydrogen bond- occurs between molecules that have polar covalent bonds Metabolism- all of the reactions in the body at any given moment Building- anabolic, synthesis, dehydration rxn’s (require input of energy- endergonic) Breaking down- catabolic, decomposition, hydrolytic rxn’s (release energy- exergonic) You should review chemical notation, Table 2-2, pg 37, if you are not familiar. Electrolytes- soluble inorganic molecules whose ions conduct and electrical current in solution *critical to homeostasis, controlled by kidneys, digestive system, skeletal system Hydrophobic molecules- no charge, cross cellular membranes, i.e. fats, lipids (nonpolar covalent bonds) Hydrophilic molecules- charged, cannot cross cellular membranes, i.e. ions, glucose (polar covalent bonds)

pH is very important! If you do not...
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