“A STUDY ON THE EXISTENCE OF ‘GLASS CEILING’ FACED BY FEMALE MANAGERS IN HOTEL INDUSTRY IN MALAYSIA ” LITERATURE REVIEW
There have been a number of market research surveys that states information on the barriers of women’s career in hotel industry. Three general areas of literature that are identified to be relevant to this study: definition of ‘’glass ceiling’’, the barriers of female managers in advancing to a higher level in their career in hotel industry and breaking through the ‘’glass ceiling which includes the factor of salary and promotion, social attitudes, work-family conflict, and training as independent variables. Whereby, capability of work, networking, morale support, and confidence and knowledge are the variables which moderate the independent variables towards the impact on glass-ceiling.
2. The Barriers of Female Managers in Hotel Industry.
The phrase “glass ceiling” refers to invisible barriers to a person in order to advance to a higher position (Flanders, 1994). This study focus on the existence of glass ceiling on women managers in middle management in achieving upper level in hotel industry in Malaysia. Even though there are Asian countries with labor equality laws but there are still women executives, which are underrepresented in the region. In Singapore, 95 per cent of women middle managers agreed that there was a glass ceiling preventing them from moving up to senior positions. ( Li and Leung, 2001). There are some other cases which highlighted by Simpson (2000), Jagger and Maxwell (1998) who argued that the ‘’glass ceiling’’ is time bounded and that age is a critical discerning factor. He stated that older women may be disadvantaged, meanwhile young women has great opportunities than their male counterparts in management. Women still under represented in management in most countries and in senior management everywhere. Furthermore, it has been levelled that occupational and vertical segregation of women is a long established characteristic of the hospitality industry. This contention in citing figures to illustrate the ‘’woeful under representation of women in the higher levels of hospitality…’’ (Gordon, 1993).
2. Discrimination in salary and promotion.
One of the factors, which contribute to glass ceiling, is the salary and promotion. There are several studies done by researchers, which support these statements. Male directors earned a mean of $10,000 more per year than female directors (Barrett et al, 1992). The female middle managers were given fewer opportunities to be promoted to upper management (Shinew and Arnold, 1992). Even the experience of employed graduates had experience of gender gap salaries at the start of their careers (Purcell and Quinn, 1995). These situations have proven that men are more likely to be offered “fast-track” career development than women. Moreover, women who were less qualified and experienced should expect lower pay than more experienced (male) counterpart (Burgess, 2003). However, even when women do hold equivalent qualification, they still appear to progress at a slower level and then reach a glass ceiling (Burgess, 2003). Herewith, women had experienced discrimination in these areas would leave not much choice to them than accepting lower pay and lack of promotion unless they are able to promote themselves beyond the normal expectation.
188.8.131.52 Capability of work
If a woman wants to get on and is willing to meet their (men) condition, career opportunities are the same for men and women (Belle, 2002). Hereby, this area of literature shows that women are able to achieve a better work balance level in career development when only they are as capable as men. Therefore, the capability of work is one of the determinant to women career achievement.
3. Social Attitude...
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