A study of the status and future of superconducting magnetic energy storage in power systems
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INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 (2006) R31–R39
SUPERCONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY doi:10.1088/0953-2048/19/6/R01
A study of the status and future of superconducting magnetic energy storage in power systems X D Xue, K W E Cheng and D Sutanto
Department of Electrical Engineering, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org
Received 5 January 2006, in ﬁnal form 21 February 2006 Published 2 May 2006 Online at stacks.iop.org/SUST/19/R31 Abstract Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems offering ﬂexible, reliable, and fast acting power compensation are applicable to power systems to improve power system stabilities and to advance power qualities. The authors have summarized researches on SMES applications to power systems. Furthermore, various SMES applications to power systems have been described brieﬂy and some crucial schematic diagrams and equations are given. In addition, this study presents valuable suggestions for future studies of SMES applications to power systems. Hence, this paper is helpful for co-researchers who want to know about the status of SMES applications to power systems.
Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is one of the applications of superconductivity. To be speciﬁc, SMES is an energy storage device that stores dc electrical energy, which excites a dc magnetic ﬁeld. The conductor for carrying the dc current operates at cryogenic temperatures where it is a superconductor and thus has virtually no resistive losses as it produces the magnetic ﬁeld. Consequently, the energy can be stored in a persistent mode, until required. The current technology of cryogenics and superconductivity makes the components of an SMES device deﬁned and constructed. In general, an SMES system consists of four parts, which are the superconducting coil with the magnet (SCM), the power conditioning system (PCS), the cryogenic system (CS), and the control unit (CU), as shown in ﬁgure 1. The functions of each part can be described brieﬂy as follows. (a) The SCM is composed of the superconducting coil, magnet, and coil protection. The SCM is used to store the dc electrical energy. The superconducting coil and the magnet must be strong enough to withstand the large Lorentz forces when energized. The coil protection 0953-2048/06/060031+09$30.00
is necessary to protect the superconducting coil against failure, which may cause serious damage to SMES systems. (b) The PCS consists of converters and ﬁring circuits. The PCS is the interface between the ac utility and the SCM. Through the PCS, the ac electrical energy can be converted into the dc electrical energy stored in the SCM. Inversely, the latter also can be converted into the former fed back to the ac utility. (c) The CS is required to cool the SCM and keep it at the operating temperature. Essentially the CS is composed of refrigerators, vacuum pumps, helium tank and pipes, and a Dewar. (d) The CU is the essential part of SMES systems. Various functions of SMES systems and the protection of the superconducting coil are controlled by the CU. No matter what purposes the SMES systems are expected to implement, they primarily depend on the CU to perform various functions. The...
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lower one depicts the line-current waveform provided by the source. It can be found that the line-current waveform from the source is nearly sinusoidal due to the SMES, although the load line-current contains an amount of harmonic components.
5. Discussions and suggestions
SMES systems have found a number of applications to power systems. These applications are demonstrated not only fully by simulations but also partially by experiments. Figure 11 provides an expeditious view of SMES applications to power systems. SMES is the only technology based on superconductivity that is applicable to the electric utilities and is commercially available today. However, because of high cost and large investment of SMES systems, most of the reported studies are implemented through computer simulations or in laboratories. There are only a few cases of practical application. Therefore, with advancements in technologies and reductions in cost of superconductivities and power components, more effort should be launched into practical applications of SMES to power systems. Generally, SMES systems with small capacity are applied to compensate for ﬂuctuating loads, to provide protections of critical loads, to provide back-up power supply, to compensate for asymmetries of currents and voltages from loads, and to R38
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