A Study of the Status and Future of Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage in Power Systems

Topics: Electric power transmission, Electricity distribution, Electric power Pages: 22 (6479 words) Published: May 7, 2013
Home

Search

Collections

Journals

About

Contact us

My IOPscience

A study of the status and future of superconducting magnetic energy storage in power systems

This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article. 2006 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 R31 (http://iopscience.iop.org/0953-2048/19/6/R01) View the table of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more

Download details: IP Address: 125.71.231.232 The article was downloaded on 11/03/2013 at 10:02

Please note that terms and conditions apply.

INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING Supercond. Sci. Technol. 19 (2006) R31–R39

SUPERCONDUCTOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY doi:10.1088/0953-2048/19/6/R01

TOPICAL REVIEW

A study of the status and future of superconducting magnetic energy storage in power systems X D Xue, K W E Cheng and D Sutanto
Department of Electrical Engineering, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China E-mail: eexdxue@polyu.edu.hk, eeecheng@polyu.edu.hk and eesutant@polyu.edu.hk

Received 5 January 2006, in final form 21 February 2006 Published 2 May 2006 Online at stacks.iop.org/SUST/19/R31 Abstract Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems offering flexible, reliable, and fast acting power compensation are applicable to power systems to improve power system stabilities and to advance power qualities. The authors have summarized researches on SMES applications to power systems. Furthermore, various SMES applications to power systems have been described briefly and some crucial schematic diagrams and equations are given. In addition, this study presents valuable suggestions for future studies of SMES applications to power systems. Hence, this paper is helpful for co-researchers who want to know about the status of SMES applications to power systems.

1. Introduction
Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is one of the applications of superconductivity. To be specific, SMES is an energy storage device that stores dc electrical energy, which excites a dc magnetic field. The conductor for carrying the dc current operates at cryogenic temperatures where it is a superconductor and thus has virtually no resistive losses as it produces the magnetic field. Consequently, the energy can be stored in a persistent mode, until required. The current technology of cryogenics and superconductivity makes the components of an SMES device defined and constructed. In general, an SMES system consists of four parts, which are the superconducting coil with the magnet (SCM), the power conditioning system (PCS), the cryogenic system (CS), and the control unit (CU), as shown in figure 1. The functions of each part can be described briefly as follows. (a) The SCM is composed of the superconducting coil, magnet, and coil protection. The SCM is used to store the dc electrical energy. The superconducting coil and the magnet must be strong enough to withstand the large Lorentz forces when energized. The coil protection 0953-2048/06/060031+09$30.00

is necessary to protect the superconducting coil against failure, which may cause serious damage to SMES systems. (b) The PCS consists of converters and firing circuits. The PCS is the interface between the ac utility and the SCM. Through the PCS, the ac electrical energy can be converted into the dc electrical energy stored in the SCM. Inversely, the latter also can be converted into the former fed back to the ac utility. (c) The CS is required to cool the SCM and keep it at the operating temperature. Essentially the CS is composed of refrigerators, vacuum pumps, helium tank and pipes, and a Dewar. (d) The CU is the essential part of SMES systems. Various functions of SMES systems and the protection of the superconducting coil are controlled by the CU. No matter what purposes the SMES systems are expected to implement, they primarily depend on the CU to perform various functions. The...

References: [1] Hsu C S and Lee W J 1992 Superconducting magnetic energy storage for power system applications IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 29 990–6 [2] Torre W V and Eckroad S 2001 Improving power delivery through the application of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) 2001 IEEE Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting, Conf. Proc. vols 1–3 (Piscataway, NJ: IEEE) pp 81–7 [3] Luongo C A 1996 Superconducting storage systems: an overview IEEE Trans. Magn. 32 2214–23 [4] Karasik V, Dixon K, Weber C, Batchelder B, Campbell G and Ribeiro P 1999 SMES for power utility applications: a review of technical and cost considerations IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 9 541–6 [5] Buckles W and Hassenzahl W 2000 Superconducting magnetic energy storage IEEE Power Eng. Rev. 20 (May) 16–20 [6] Ise T, Murakami Y and Tsuji K 1987 Charging and discharging characteristics of SMES with active filter in transmission system IEEE Trans. Magn. 23 545–8 [7] Jiang Q and Conlon M F 1996 The power regulation of a PWM type superconducting magnetic energy storage unit IEEE Trans. Energy Convers. 11 168–74 [8] Rabbani M G, Devotta J B X and Elangovan S 1998 Fuzzy controlled SMES unit for power system application Proc. Int. Conf. on Energy Management and Power Delivery, EMPD vol 1, pp 41–6 [9] Kamolyabutra D, Mitani Y, Ise T and Tsuji K 1999 Experimental study on power system stabilizing control scheme for the SMES with solid-state phase shifter (SuperSMES) IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 9 326–9 [10] Arsoy A, Liu Y, Ribeiro P F and Wang F 2000 Power converter and SMES in controlling power system dynamics 2000 IEEE Industry Applications Conf. vol 4 (Piscataway, NJ: IEEE) pp 2051–7
lower one depicts the line-current waveform provided by the source. It can be found that the line-current waveform from the source is nearly sinusoidal due to the SMES, although the load line-current contains an amount of harmonic components.
5. Discussions and suggestions
SMES systems have found a number of applications to power systems. These applications are demonstrated not only fully by simulations but also partially by experiments. Figure 11 provides an expeditious view of SMES applications to power systems. SMES is the only technology based on superconductivity that is applicable to the electric utilities and is commercially available today. However, because of high cost and large investment of SMES systems, most of the reported studies are implemented through computer simulations or in laboratories. There are only a few cases of practical application. Therefore, with advancements in technologies and reductions in cost of superconductivities and power components, more effort should be launched into practical applications of SMES to power systems. Generally, SMES systems with small capacity are applied to compensate for fluctuating loads, to provide protections of critical loads, to provide back-up power supply, to compensate for asymmetries of currents and voltages from loads, and to R38
Topical Review
[11] Ribeiro P F, Arsoy A and Liu Y L 2000 Transmission power quality benefits realized by a SMES-FACTS controller 9th Int. Conf. on Harmonics and Quality of Power vols I–III, pp 307–12 [12] Tay H C and Conlon M F 1998 Development of a SMES system as a fluctuating load compensator IEE Proc. Gener. Transm. Distrib. 145 700–8 [13] Funabiki S, Yorioka T and Fujii T 1998 An experiment of fuzzy control for leveling load power fluctuations using an SMES simulator 33rd IEEE IAS Annual Meeting vol 2 (Piscataway, NJ: IEEE) pp 1269–74 [14] Chu X, Jiang X H, Lai Y C, Wu X Z and Liu W 2001 SMES control algorithms for improving customer power quality IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 11 1769–72 [15] Ise T 2001 Studies on power conditioning system for SMES in ITER IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 11 (1) [16] Ise T, Furukawa K, Kobayashi Y, Kumagai S, Sato H and Shintomi T 2003 Magnet power supply with power fluctuation compensating function using SMES for high intensity synchrotron IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13 1814–7 [17] Tripathy S C and Juengst K P 1997 Sampled data automatic generation control with superconducting magnetic energy storage in power systems IEEE Trans. Energy Convers. 12 187–92 [18] Lamoree J, Tang L, DeWinkel C and Vinett P 1994 Description of a Micro-SMES for protection of critical customer facilities IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 9 984–91 [19] Kalafala A K, Bascunan J, Bell D D, Blecher L, Murray F S, Parizh M B, Sampson M W and Wilcox R E 1996 Micro superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system for protection of critical industrial and military loads IEEE Trans. Magn. 32 2276–9
[20] Parizh M, Kalafala A K and Wilcox R 1997 Superconducting magnetic energy storage for substation applications IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 7 849–52 [21] Aware M V and Sutanto D 2004 SMES for protection of distributed critical loads IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 19 1267–75 [22] Ise T, Ishii J and Kumagai S 1999 Compensation of harmonics and negative components in line current and voltage by a SuperSMES IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 9 334–7 [23] Casadei D, Grandi G, Reggiani U, Serra G and Tani A 1999 Behavior of a power conditioner for µ-SMES systems under unbalanced supply voltages and unbalanced loads Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. on Industrial Electronics vol 2 (Piscataway, NJ: IEEE) pp 539–44 [24] Tay H C and Conlon M F 2000 Development of an unbalanced switching scheme for a current source inverter IEE Proc. Gener. Transm. Distrib. 147 23–30 [25] Yu J, Duan X, Tang Y and Yuan P 2002 Control scheme studies of voltage source type superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) under asymmetrical voltage IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 12 750–3 [26] Juengst K P and Salbert H 1996 Fast SMES for generation of high power pulse IEEE Trans. Magn. 32 2272–5 [27] Gamble B B, Snichler G L and Schwall R E 1996 Prospects for HTS applications IEEE Trans. Magn. 32 2714–9 [28] Picard J F et al 1999 Technologies for high field HTS magnets IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 9 535–40 [29] Mariani M et al 2002 Cryocooler cooled HTS current leads for a 1 MJ/1 MW-class SMES system IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 12 1293–6 [30] Kreutz R, Salbert H, Krischel D, Hobl A, Radermacher C, Blacha N, Behrens P and Duetsch K 2003 Design of a 150 kJ high-Tc SMES (HSMES) for a 20 kVA uninterruptible power supply system IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 13 1860–2
R39
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Energy Storage Systems Essay
  • Essay on Case Study: Storage Systems, Inc.
  • The Future of Energy Essay
  • Future Energy Essay
  • Energy of the Future Essay
  • Energy of the Future Essay
  • Energy for the Future Essay
  • Energy of the Future Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free