A STUDY OF THE HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS ATTITUDE TOWARDS FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION Education is a continuous process. It can be formal or systematic and informal or un-academic. The basic aim of education is to bring a positive change in behavior and to bring out and modify the existing capability. “Education is a process of living through a continuous reconstruction of experience. It is the development of all those capacities in the individuals which will enable him to control his environment and fulfill his responsibilities” (John Dewey, p.27, 1956)
To achieve the educational objectives and for the conduction of the educational process properly the process of assessment is necessary. Assessment and evaluation provides information that is used for a variety of educational decisions. The main emphasis of classroom evaluation however is the pupil and his or her learning progress. Assessment and evaluation is a systematic process of determining the extent to which pupils achieve instructional objectives.
“Assessment involves the interpretation of measurement data. It makes sense of the data collection on student performance”. (Murry Print, p. 51, 1993)
Formative evaluation occurs over a period of time and monitors students’ progress. It includes all activities that teachers and students undertake to get information that can be used diagnostically to alter teaching and learning. Under this definition, basement encompasses teacher’s observation, classroom discussion, and analysis of student work, including homework and test.
Assessment become formative when the informative is used to adapt teaching learning to meet student needs. When teachers know how students are progressing and where they are having trouble, they can use this information to make necessary approaches or offering more opportunities for practice. These activities can lead to improved student success. Feedback given as part of formative assessment help learners become aware of any gaps that exist between



Bibliography: 1. Ainsworth, L.; Viegut, D. (2006). “Common formative assessments”. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. 2. Bachman 3. Black, P. J., & Wiliam, D. (2009). Developing the theory of formative assessment. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 21(1), 5-31. 4. Black, Paul; Wiliam, Dylan (1998) 5. Black, Paul; Wiliam, Dylan (2003). " 'In praise of educational research ': formative assessment". British Educational Research Journal 29 (5): 623–637. 6. Bloom, Benjamin S 7. Boston, Carol (2002). The concept of formative assessment. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 8(9). 8. Cohen 9. Cowie, Bronwen; Bell, Beverley (1999). "A model of formative assessment in science education". Assessment in Education 6: 101–116. 10. Duckett, Ian and Brooke, Di, Learning and Skills Network (2007), p.1 13. Marzano, R. J. (2006). Classroom assessments and grading that work. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 14. Marzano, Robert J 15. Nicol, David J.; Macfarlane-Dick, Debra (2006). "Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: a model and seven principles of good practice". Studies in Higher Education 31 (2): 199–218. 16. Nicol, David; Macfarlane-Dick, Debra (2005) 17. Stiggins, R.J., Arter, J.A., Chappius, J. & Chappius, S. (2006). Classroom assessment for student learning: Doing it right-using it well. Portland, OR: Educational Testing Service. 18. Wang, T.H 19. Wiliam, Dylan (2006). "Formative assessment: getting the focus right". Educational Assessment 11: 283–289. APPENDIX

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