A Short Critical Evaluation of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (Tms)

Good Essays
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has become a practical and effective technique in its use to study cognitive function (Jahanshahi & Rotherwell, 2000). It has been used to explore the motor-cortex, through its visible muscle twitch effect after stimulation, and primary visual pathways (Jahanshahi & Rotherwell; Beckers & Zeki, 1995). Through this exploration it was found that TMS can be used to create ‘virtual lesions’ in the brain in which cortical processing is disrupted (Jahanshahi & Rotherwell). Thus, it is a valuable asset in identifying the roles of different parts of the brain in various tasks (Jahanshahi & Rotherwell). However, there are methodological and procedural difficulties which need to be considered when using TMS.

Besides creating electrical stimulation in the brain TMS has several ancillary effects which can distract participants from the tasks they perform and distort results (Jahanshahi & Rotherwell , 2000; Anand & Hotson, 2002). Eye blinking, tactile sensation on the scalp and a loud auditory click as the pulse is discharged, along with muscle twitches, which can become quiet pronounced, all confound results (Jahanshahi & Rotherwell; Anand & Hotson). However, with ‘anatomical’, task, time or sham controls implemented into the design these secondary effects can be controlled for (Anand & Hotson).

In a ‘control site’ design, the effects of TMS on one part of the cortical are compared when the coil delivering the electric pulse is moved and implemented on a control location which is predicted to have no effect (Jahanshahi & Rotherwell, 2000). However, by moving the coil to a different location, the ancillary effects can change (Aanand & Hotson, 2000). For example, the effects of moving from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to the medial frontal cortex, as carried out in an experiment by Jahanshahi et al. (1998), could interfere as additional nerves and muscles may be activated (Jahanshahi & Rotherwell; Anand & Hotson).

When task

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays

    Memory “boosted” using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) Researchers at Northwestern University claim to have successfully improved memory functions through the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), a noninvasive technique used to excite or inhibit neurons within the human brain. Prior to testing the participants’ memory abilities, each individual’s brain activity was recorded during an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan in order for researchers to precisely target s…

    • 499 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    advantage of tDCS over another brain stimulation technique such us Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is that sham stimulation can be indistinguishable from active stimulation (000). Sham stimulation is carried out by increasing current over several seconds to the target strength, and then tapering off over several seconds. In this way, during sham stimulation subjects theoretically have the same experience of itching and tingling as they would during active stimulation. Furthermore, sensations perceived…

    • 99 Words
    • 1 Page
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    DLPFC Stimulation

    • 437 Words
    • 2 Pages

    consumption can be reduced by non- invasive stimulation of a particular brain area. According to researchers of the University of Waterloo in Canada, a specific part of the brain could help reduce snacking. Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC), a brain area that plays an important role in the conscious regulation of food cravings and consumption of high calorie food items. Analyses of 11 studies were done to study the effects of DLPFC stimulation on food cravings and…

    • 437 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Critical Evaluation

    • 727 Words
    • 3 Pages

    A critical evaluation of my career plan. Long and short term goals I have always had a passion for food and how it changes the way we live our lives. I have realised the ever growing importance of nutrition, which is why I would like to pursue my long term goal of becoming a dietitian. My own knowledge to date has been based around personal research, which I have applied to myself and family and we have reaped the benefits. Since having my daughter I have become even more interested in nutrition…

    • 727 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Critical Evaluation

    • 408 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Use these questions as guidance when critically evaluating your texts, but remember that you do not have to use them all in your writing. Critical Evaluation of Sources Is the source: Source type a book, a journal, an e-journal, an Internet article, a newspaper, a magazine, a blog Why the source was chosen How does the text relate to your research topic – does it provide background information, support for an argument, relevant data / details about the issue? Authority of the writer…

    • 408 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    critical evaluation

    • 836 Words
    • 4 Pages

    Professor English 102 Critical Evaluation Essay: A Petition to the President of the United States The atomic bombs that were dropped on Japan in 1945 were not seen as a logical reaction to the war by everyone. Leo Szilard was a Hungarian physicist that was the first to conceive of the mechanics of the atomic bomb, and how it worked. He was fighting the use of these bombs on Japan, and trying to urge the President to reconsider the idea. Although he lost the argument over…

    • 836 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive neuromodulation technique that is safe and inexpensive. The mechanisms of tDCS include the transmission of a consistent, low electric current through the scalp through two electrodes, the anode and the cathode…

    • 666 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Brigadier Tm

    • 1784 Words
    • 8 Pages

    Presentation “ Brigadier Tariq Mahmood” Presented by; Rabia Mushtaq Malik MBA-2 Profile: Brigadier Tariq Mahmood (TM) – Man of Steel Birth Name: * Tariq Mahmood Nick name: * Man of Steel Place of Birth: * Rawalpindi, Place of Death: * Rahwali Gujranawala cantt, Punjab province Allegiance: * Pakistani Service/branch: * Special Service Group (SSG), Pakistan Army…

    • 1784 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Critial Evaluation of an Academic Source NMN Capella University ED5001 Critial Evaluation of an Academic Source This paper is a critical evaluation regarding the suitability of using scholarly articles as an academic source. We will analyze the “Critical Thinking: An Extended Definition” that discusses various scholar definiitons on what is critical thinking and the process of critical thinking. Checklist for Critical Evaluation Peer Review…

    • 1040 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Critical Evaluation in Psychology: A Guide for Students Author: Julie Hulme Table of contents 1. Introduction 3 1.1 What will this handout help me with? 3 1.2 What is critical evaluation? 3 1.3 Asking questions 3 1.4 Who is writing? 3 1.5 What evidence is used to support the arguments made? 4 1.6 What does this work contribute to knowledge of the subject? 5 2. Summary 6 3. An exercise in critical evaluation 7 3.1 The extract 7 3.2 Questions 8 3.3 Possible answers to the questions…

    • 3238 Words
    • 13 Pages
    Powerful Essays