Ever since the beginning of mankind, women could not enjoy the status equal to men, however, in the present era of modernization and globalization women have earned a lot of social, economical, political as well as legal recognition and status. Though, all these advantages are most enjoyed in the First World countries that are not only economically, socially and politically developed but also technologically advanced and modernized states of the globe. On the other hand women of the developing countries (Third World Countries) are not as privileged and lack basic social, economical and political rights, varying from country to country depending upon the social and religious culture of these countries. Therefore, the level of social, political and economic disadvantages varies from state to state depending upon their development level among the list of the Third World Countries. At the same time, there is also difference in these statuses of women from rural areas to urban areas. Most importantly due to globalization, the developed world is focusing more on developing the third world countries by providing various social, technological as well as economical aids to women of both rural and urban sectors of the developing world. However, Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. The country has a population of about 140 million. Maternal Mortality Ratio remains high in Bangladesh at a ratio of 3.2. Only 13% deliveries are attended by skilled birth attendants, 92% deliveries take place at home and institutional delivery is only 8%. Major causes of maternal death are hemorrhage, eclampsia, puerperal sepsis and obstructed labour. In Bangladesh every year about 3 million deliveries take place and around 12 thousand mothers die due to pregnancy related causes. On the other hand every year two hundred thousand mothers suffer from long-term ailments due to lack of consciousness of the family as well as the lack of medical facility for maternal health. Most of the causes can be prevented and treated by providing Medical Care during pregnancy and follow up of postpartum period. Developing capacity of the service providers in delivering high quality and effective reproductive health services is of great importance to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity rates in the country. It does so by placing a strong focus upon institutional strengthening and capacity development. TITLE OF THE STUDY
Medical Facilities and Reproductive Health of Women: An Overview. AREA OF THE STUDY
Reproductive Health of Women.
Bangladesh is one of the high-density countries of the world. According to the UN Gender Development Index, Bangladesh is ranked 121st out of a total of 146 countries worldwide. Out of the total population, 48.9 per cent is women, of whom nearly 86 per cent live in rural areas. And only about 16 per cent women are literate compared to a 30 percent rate of literate men. Demographic changes related to fertility and migration influences the Bangladesh economy and society to a great extent. For years, Bangladesh was characterized by a youthful population structure with a heavy concentration of children (below 15 years) and an imbalance in the sex ratio. Over time, however, the fertility rate has declined remarkably and this significantly affected the population composition. In 1995-1996, about 53 per cent of the population belonged to the active age group and 41 per cent were children. The female population of reproductive age was 29.8 million in 1996. This number is likely to reach 37 million in 2010. There is little evident improvement in the overall sex ratio, which shows a preponderance of men over women. Over a period of more than two decades, the sex ratio decreased from 108 to 105. However it improved remarkably in urban areas, suggesting a greater volume of women’s independent migration to cities and also a higher prevalence of family migration. In 1995-1996, sex...
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