A Level Notes

Topics: Protein, Amino acid, Enzyme / Pages: 90 (22433 words) / Published: Nov 2nd, 2012
AS Biology Unit 1

page 1

AQA AS Biology Unit 1
Contents
Specification
Biological Molecules

Cells

Human Physiology

Disease

Appendices

Chemical bonds
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Biochemical Tests
Enzymes
Eukaryotic Cells
Prokaryotic Cells
Cell Fractionation
Microscopy
The Cell Membrane
Movement across Cell Membranes
Exchange
The Gas Exchange System
Lung Diseases
The Heart
Coronary Heart Disease
The Digestive System
Cholera
Lifestyle and Disease
Defence against Disease
Immunisation
Monoclonal Antibodies
1 – Mathematical Requirements
2– The Unit 1 Exam

2
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10
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These notes may be used freely by A level biology students and teachers, and they may be copied and edited.
Please do not use these materials for commercial purposes.
I would be interested to hear of any comments and corrections.
Neil C Millar (nmillar@ntlworld.co.uk)
Head of Biology, Heckmondwike Grammar School
High Street, Heckmondwike, WF16 0AH
July 2011

HGS Biology A-level notes

NCM/7/11

AS Biology Unit 1

page 2

Biology Unit 1 Specification
Biochemistry
Biological Molecules
Biological molecules such as carbohydrates and proteins are often polymers and are based on a small number of chemical elements.
• Proteins have a variety of functions within all living organisms. The general structure of an amino acid.
Condensation and the formation of peptide bonds linking together amino acids to form polypeptides.
The relationship between primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure, and protein function. • Monosaccharides are the basic molecular units
(monomers) of which carbohydrates are composed.
The structure of α-glucose and the linking of αglucose by glycosidic bonds formed by condensation to form maltose and starch. Sucrose is a disaccharide formed by condensation of glucose and fructose. Lactose is a disaccharide

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