BY MOHAMMAD ANWAR
Paper 1 starts from Page 2
Paper 3 starts from Page 64
(Please take a look at these questions, which
involve comparisons of issues related with
I would recommend that you use the following book for Paper 1 and Paper 3
“Mastering Modern World History”
by Norman Lowe
Assess the impact of nationalism on the 1848–49 revolutions in Germany and Italy. Examiners will expect answers that are reasonably balanced between Germany and Italy. 60:40 either way - probably in favor of Italy – can merit any. Most candidates are likely to see nationalism as synonymous with support for unification but high credit should be given to answers that are aware of the distinction.
Meaning of term nationalism
Good candidates realized that there were different forms of nationalism. For example, they noted that Italian nationalists included monarchists and republicans, centralists and federalists Some might argue that anti-Austrian feeling was stronger in Italy than nationalism, which appealed to a minority. Some answers deserved credit when they pointed out the limited appeal of nationalism Others, such as the Federalists, favored programmes that were hardly nationalistic but were policies to safeguard the rights of individual states. Here regionalism was more important than support for a larger united country Mazzini struggled to win support for his cause. The Carbonari and Young Italy had limited support. Risings in the1830s were put down easily. 1848 was the clearest sign of nationalism but evidence of unity was slight. Although rulers of some states conceded constitutions, they were back in control by the end of 1849.
Metternich was as active in Germany as he had been in Italy to secure order and suppress nationalism. After 1815, support for a united Germany was confined to a small group of intellectuals and students. Candidates might refer to the Carlsbad Decrees (1819) which struck at nationalism and associated liberalism in Germany. Nationalism revived by 1848, assisted as in Italy by poor economic conditions. During the revolutions of 1848–49, there were calls for a united Germany, culminating in the Frankfurt Parliament. However, its failure was due to limited support as well as poor leadership. The attitude of Frederick William IV of Prussia was also crucial. He rejected the offer of the German crown. Some very able candidates might argue that nationalism played a minor role in both areas and that the revolutions arose from different grievances and factors. Some social groups were more concerned about economic grievances
Why did the 1848 Revolutions fail in both Germany and Italy? The highest band will not need a 50:50 balance. 60:40 can merit any mark Common Reasons
There was a lack of clear aims in both regions. Although anti-Austrian feeling was a common factor some wanted liberalism but not unity
others struggled for economic reasons,
Only a minority sought unification.
Some favored a monarchy, others advocated a republic.
There were different opinions about centralized rule and federalism. The middle classes tended to be preoccupied with their own interests and did not share the lower orders’ priorities of land and employment.
Limited support for major political changes as both Germany and Italy contained powerful conservative forces that opposed the dangerous changes proposed by revolutionaries
In Germany, many princes immediately reacted by granting constitutions which satisfied many who sought change. The aim was not primarily for unification but for more liberal governments. (Give high...
References: Economic changes, for example the Five Year Plans (1928–32, 1933–37 and 1938–42), saw an emphasis on industrial
Please join StudyMode to read the full document