Running head: EFFECTIVE CITING AND FORMATTING 1
Effective Citing and Formatting in an APA Paper Basil Black
September 10, 2009
Note: The cover page is the first page of the document. It offers a full, descriptive title (preferably no more than 12 words), centered in the upper middle of the page, followed by the author’s name and any other required information. All items are double-spaced. At the top of the cover page (justified left), a shortened version of the title must be provided as a header; this short version is known as a “Running head.” On the cover page itself, the phrase “Running head:” will appear, followed by the start of the title (no more than 50 characters) with all letters capitalized. In order to make the running head coherent, you may slightly modify the title words. Then, on subsequent pages in the paper, the running head continues to appear in the header area, but the phrase “Running head” is now dropped. To insert the “Running head” in a Microsoft Word 2003 document, use the “Header and Footer” function under “View.” Separately you should use the “Page Numbers” function under “Insert” to place a page number in the upper right corner of the page, with page one being the cover page. However, for a Microsoft Word 2007 document, both functions are under “Insert.” Not all professors will require a cover page. Many professors will also have specific expectations for how a cover page in their class should look – defer to them! The model here is generally consistent with the APA publication manual, though strictly speaking the manual only calls for a title, the author’s name, and the author’s institution (e.g., Aurora University) centered in the upper middle of the page, rather than including course code, professor’s name, and date. Those additional elements are included here because many professors expect to see this information on a cover page. The manual also calls for an “Author Note,” which is not applicable to most student papers, and thus it is not modeled here. EFFECTIVE CITING AND FORMATTING
The ethical crisis of cross-cultural counseling and therapy results from the use of mental health assumptions, assessments, and interventions that were developed in one cultural context but implemented in a totally different one. The present article sought (a) to determine if ethical guidelines sensitive to cross-cultural counseling and therapy are needed, (b) to discuss guidelines for research that have direct implications for cross-cultural counselors and therapists, and (c) to identify questions of ethics that come out of reading through American Psychological Association guidelines that pertain to serving a multicultural population. Questions for discussion are identified but solutions are not offered. The authors encourage increased discussion and cooperation that will result in the development of ethical guidelines for cross-cultural counselors and therapists. Above is an example of an actual abstract from an article by Pedersen and Marsella (1982). As the 6th edition of the APA Publication Manual indicates, an abstract in an APA style paper is meant to be a “brief, comprehensive summary of the contents” (American Psychological Association [APA], 2010, p. 25) of an article or essay. An abstract is meant to be read independently of the essay. Just as someone might read an abstract in order to choose whether or not to read a journal article, so your abstract exists to give a reader an overview of the high points of your entire essay. Thus, the abstract is not an introduction paragraph. It should allow a reader to have a clear sense of key elements, such as the topic, problem, goals, thesis, approach, and findings offered within your paper. The abstract explains what is the issue or problem being addressed and makes clear what the paper has demonstrated (not what it will demonstrate), so you should use present or past tense in reporting the paper’s contents. The...
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