Every Government needs a framework in order for them to efficiently work, regulate, and rule the masses. This framework is known as a Constitution, and it is a set of fundamental principles created according to the desires and needs of those involved in its forging. Now Government power is limited when there is a mutual respect on the restraints on power, a constitution with legal limits on power, individual rights are protected in the constitution, and in all there is a status quo for promoting what is best for everyone. To add to this there is a separation of powers and the power must be shared. However, the polar opposite of a limited government is an unlimited government which includes two types, an Authoritarian and Totalitarian. Within a Totalitarian government, there is one dominant leader supported by a mass party, the media is controlled, there is no opposition allowed, terror is used to maintain power, and individual behavior is controlled. In an Authoritarian government, it is controlled by a single person or a dominant elite, the military shows full support, the government itself is not accountable for its actions, the media can be censored, and the public is not allowed to criticize the government.
Now if you are looking for structure, something with a final say, a written constitution is the way to go because it grants a written assurance of all the principles set forth within the document. With an unwritten, you would have to depend on the tradition of the people, and traditions can either evolve or change in varying amounts of time, the only assurance and final say you can get is by those who are around you. A written constitution is needed for Xlandia because they just came out of a dictatorship, they aren’t familiar with democracy, and they need a structured final say in a written constitution. A federalist system is one where sovereignty is divided between a central governing authority and it’s counterparts (States and or Regions), this gives these regions a good deal of power, which, in Xlandia’s case would not do well because first of all, they need to all be in this rebirth of a new government together, and secondly, some areas might be so full of the lower class that the upper elite would surely lose power. A unitary government is one where all power goes to the National government in which it is easy to control, it is consistent, and it is really efficient. This unitary system is a good choice because the regions of Xlandia are distinct, however each must be represented in a place where they must work together for the benefit of their whole country rather than the benefit of their individual regions. Within this Unitary system, a parliamentary system would be the weapon of choice because each region is bound to be represented in parliament. There would be minimal conflicts, more diversity, and multiple parties in one concentrated area. Also, the upper elite would have a chance to get power in parliament to represent their region(s), yet the people will also have a say here because they get to vote for them. So if the upper elite’s characteristics are in favor of the people, the elite would be able to maintain his or her power while the people would be able to have a good representative for them. (Both parties win in this scenario) A presidential system is one where a head of government is also head of state and leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch. Now, because the head of state has so much power, this would not work out for the Xlandians who just had a dictator because they are weary of having one person with too much power. The rights of the Xlandians should be protected within the Constitution because we can’t have contradictions in a consistent system of government. (Parliament) This, again refers to the Xlandians needing a final say on things because they need that assurance that they are protected, and this is a fundamental fact that democracies work best when the rights of everyone is protected as it echoes what John Locke said that each person’s life is valuable. The military of Xlandia should be governed by the civilian government because the generals can’t have military superiority because they could easily overthrow the civilian government, and sometimes the military and civilians do not agree on things, plus everyone should be able to contribute on decisions their military should do. (Thus enforcing unity)
As for the executive powers, the chief executive must be elected by representatives, this encourages the people to really choose wisely when they vote for their representative in parliament because whoever they pick will elect their chief executive. The role of the chief is simple, there will only be one, and the chief’s primary task is to enforce and carry out laws rather than make them. (Otherwise this contradicts our need to have no dictator like characteristics within this new government.) Also, in my view, if we leave the vote of the chief to popular vote, the risks of votes themselves being blind is high, and because the Chief would have overwhelming influence, one small slip up could mean another dictatorship. The executive would have a 4 year term so as to shorten his/her’s time to avoid corruption.
The Legislative branch should be unicameral because a unicameral system allows for less gridlock, and it will help ease the Xlandians into Democracy. Unicameral means that there is only one legislative or parliamentary chamber rather than a Bicameral, which means that there are two legislative or parliamentary chambers. Though a Bicameral system has a check and balance characteristic, it only works when the two chambers can work together, and in this case each region is distinct and the risk of them not working together cohesively is high. In order for them to truly understand democracy, things have to be simple, and having things in one place is a lot more simple than having things spread out everywhere. The legislative branch should be selected by popular vote because since they themselves elect the chief and make the laws, they should embody what the Country as a whole desires and needs. I also think that a term of 5-6 years is sufficient to aid the representatives in setting their foundations and in getting tasks done. Also, because the representatives have two more years than the executive, the influence of the many will “rub,” off on the chief.
Judicial Power within Xlandia consists of a Supreme Court as does any judicial branch. The members should be appointed by the executive with legislative approval so that the people’s choice is technically embodied within the selection process. (The people elect their representatives in the legislative branch) Also, since the executive has some say in this, (so as to avoid a dictator characteristic here), the Supreme court should be subject to judicial review and be independent. That way the executive branch doesn’t have too much say in all of these things. The executive stays true to his/her role, which is to enforce and carry out laws.
The Citizens ultimately have the most power, however, in these turbulent times where the Country must ease itself into Democracy, they must have a voluntary vote, and in order to vote, you must be literate and understand how everything will work. Sure there is a difference than book and street smarts, but a balance of both is needed to make an educated vote for the better of the Country. Thus, to vote, you must pass a standard literacy test which tests for basics in reading and writing. To add to this, eventually, because the educated would want the others to become educated, the literacy rate of Xlandia would be able to escalate through Government programs, etc. A Country must invest in its people. Also, in order to help keep each region to their own and to keep them happy, a multiple party system will be placed. This gives more room for more voices to be heard in one concentrated central government.
A strong middle class will be made by the government eventually, hopefully through the use of government programs to help educate the rest of the Country and to help create higher places of learning. Education is key in developing good skills, and because a good portion of the Country would have a head start, they can move onto higher education while the others will eventually catch up. The skills they learned would ultimately translate into the workforce, and will help inspire entrepreneurship because the competition will be stiff, however this spark of skills and newly educated people will make everyone have hope for themselves. Ultimately because the work force is expanding, (as we see in China right now), their economy will get a good boost from all the competition and numbers they will be generating because of the educational system. New technologies would be discovered, and others would be improved upon in these places of learning. People’s minds will be enlightened, and they will finally know, to an extent, who they are and their importance here. The more educated a people, the more complex they become and eventually new laws will be placed so as to help keep up with their progressing lives. Because education is so highlighted, (as it is here in the USA), the military will certainly be upgraded due to the fact that the military comes from its people. Education will give this Country a breath of new life, and will encourage the enforcement of the common good.
***Please note that this is for a government class.