Dessler (1999) defines performance appraisal as a process that identifies, evaluates and develops employee performance to meet both employee and organizational goals. John Ivancevich (2001) defines it as an activity that is used to determine the extent to which an employee performs work effectively and efficiently. The appraiser during the performance appraisal process identifies performance through observation and the collection of performance based information and evaluates this performance against set criteria and indicators as agreed between both parties in case of management by objective or from the job description of the appraisee. This process is crucial in ensuring that an organization is competitive and for strategizing in terms of planning for promotions, training, recruitments etc. Although people recognize its importance, there are many criticisms that have been leveled against performance appraisal that will be discussed below.
One of the dominant critiques of performance appraisal is that of orthodox which criticizes the process of
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