IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 2, NO. 1, MARCH 2011
A Control Framework for the Smart Grid for Voltage
Support Using Agent-Based Technologies
Angel A. Aquino-Lugo, Member, IEEE, Ray Klump, Member, IEEE, and Thomas J. Overbye, Fellow, IEEE
Abstract—The introduction of remotely controlled network devices is transforming the way the power system is operated and studied. The ability to provide real and reactive power support can be achieved at the end-user level. In this paper, a framework and algorithm to coordinate this type of end-user control is presented. The algorithm is based on a layered architecture that would follow a chain of command from the top layer (transmission grid) to the bottom layer (distribution grid). At the distribution grid layer, certain local problems can be solved without the intervention of the top layers. A reactive load control optimization algorithm to improve the voltage proﬁle in distribution grid is presented. The framework presented in this paper integrates agent-based technologies to manage the data and control actions required to operate this type of architecture.
Index Terms—Distributed control, incident command system,
intelligent agents, reactive power resources, voltage control.
ODAY, the power grid is transforming and evolving into
a faster-acting, potentially more controllable grid than in
the past. This so-called “smart grid” will incorporate new digital and intelligent devices to replace the old analog devices in the power network. These new devices would allow remote control and operation, providing an opportunity for new control schemes and algorithms.
Many proponents of the smart grid think that controlling enduser devices, such as loads, will help the power grid during stress and abnormal situations. For example, the Grid Friendly Appliance controller developed at Paciﬁc Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)  will sense grid conditions by monitoring the frequency of the system and providing automatic load demand response in times of disruption to improve the frequency of the grid. This controller will be installed in certain appliances to turn them off or reduce the loading for a few minutes or even a few seconds to allow the grid to stabilize. Projects like this have the potential to transform the way the power grid is operated and analyzed. Currently, the grid is operated in a centralized manner. For example, the system protection against faults utilizes relays that Manuscript received July 15, 2010; accepted October 27, 2010. Date of publication January 06, 2011; date of current version February 18, 2011. This work was supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-OE0000097. Paper no. TSG-00092-2010.
The authors are with the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org).
Color versions of one or more of the ﬁgures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.
Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TSG.2010.2096238
are constantly monitoring the grid to detect abnormal conditions, and they initiate corrective action when it is needed. This protection implements local controls that are part of the SCADA supervisory scheme, which is a centralized framework.
This paper extends the ideas presented in  and  for using real and reactive load as a resource to mitigate certain problems in the power grid. It would integrate the centralized structure of protective relays into the proposed control framework. In , a scheme that uses intelligent agents is implemented to relieve line overloads by controlling certain loads in the grid. Also, a decentralized optimization algorithm was presented to minimize power losses in the distribution network. In , a scheme to control reactive power to maintain a healthy voltage proﬁle is presented. The algorithm would be implemented using an intelligent control scheme...
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