A Comparison Between Australia and South Africa About the Control of Tuberculosis.

Topics: Tuberculosis, Africa, AIDS Pages: 5 (1805 words) Published: June 19, 2013
1.0Introduction
One of the world’s most prevalent diseases is tuberculosis and is caused by a bacterium named Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. A short form for the word “tuberculosis” would be TB. There are different types of symptoms when one gets infected with TB, one such symptom would be chest pain or nausea. TB is usually found in the lungs (Gissy 2006). Like many other diseases, it is quite contagious. But not as bad as the Black Death, a plague in mid 14th century, (Metcalf 1991) which killed XX amount of people. The actual origins of human contracting this disease is still unknown, however, there are scientists who believed that cattle are the original source of tuberculosis infections. Some also believe that Mycobacterium tuberculosis was actually evolved from Mycobacterium bovis (Metcalf 1991). With little evidence, people neglected the theories that were made by the scientists until Robert Koch discovered this disease in 1882 (Pan 1996). In order to get infected with TB, one must be in the same room with a person infected. Tubercle Bacillus is an air borne disease, which means someone infected can pass on the disease to a healthy person through sneezing or coughing. In order to quarantine the disease, nations developed tuberculosis control programs (Lee and Buch 1991). The purpose of this research is to compare the control of tuberculosis in a developing country, South Africa, and a developed country, Australia. 2.0Epidemiology

The World Health Organization declared tuberculosis as ‘a global emergency’ in 1993 when the disease had spread and infected more than a third of the world’s population (National Health and Medical Research Council 1994). 2.1Mobility and Mortality

Detection rates in both Australia and South Africa has been increasing, however, the treatment success rates in South Africa still remain low. According to the WHO (2008), the DOTS treatment success rate only increased by 2% (69% in 1996 to 71% in 2006) resulting in 218 deaths per 100 000. Compare to Australia, with a mortality rate of 0.6 deaths per 100 000.

2.2Tuberculosis in Specific Ethnic Groups
The effect of tuberculosis on Australian Aboriginals is much greater than the other ethnic groups due to a low socioeconomic standard (National Health and Medical Research Council 1989). In many developing countries like South Africa, diseases such as the Human Immunodeficiency Viruses are a threat because it is easily associated with tuberculosis. With HIV in their blood stream, one may get a positive infection of TB (WHO 2008). 2.3Different Significance of Tuberculosis

There are two consequences of tuberculosis, when one gets infected with the disease. Either, there is a 10% chance that it will gain activeness (National Health and Medical Research Council 1994). In other cases, tuberculosis may not generate at all, leaving them immune. 2.4Treatment

With new technologies provided to improve treatment, the detection rate of TB will have a huge improvement, as well. With good treatment, 90 - 93% of the infected have the chance of success; 5-7% of them would die and 2-3% would remain in the state they’re in (Strebel and Seager 1991). 3.0Global Threat

Annually, there are new cases of tuberculosis infecting people and this is causing a huge problem. In 2005, WHO declared tuberculosis an emergency in Africa. The annual amount of new tuberculosis cases caused about 540 000 deaths. This started the “tuberculosis global response plan” presented by the WHO in 2007 (WHO 2007). 3.1Stop Tuberculosis Strategy

The official goal, to minimize the cases of tuberculosis by the year 2015, is a collaboration of Stop TB Working Groups and Secretariat (WHO 2007). 49 000 lives were saved in 2007 and the amount save in 2008 was about twice that figure. In there were about twice the amount more saved in 2008, in order to achieve a better goal, it was set to 1.2 million lives by 2015 (WHO2007).

3.2Global Tuberculosis Epidemic and Progress
According...
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