A Comparison Between Advertising Agencies’ and Pr Agencies’ Internationalization Motives and Entry Modes - Eight Cases from Sweden

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A comparison between advertising agencies’ and PR agencies’ internationalization motives and entry modes - Eight cases from Sweden

1. Abstract
The firm internationalization literature is extensive, but dominated by studies of technical, often large, firms. The service firm internationalization literature is slowly growing. Few international contributions are found investigating the advertising industry and no such studies focus on the Swedish market. The PR industry has been internationally neglected. This study investigates four advertising agencies and four PR agencies in the Swedish market. The eight case agencies confirm traditional internationalization motives, but also new motives are found, such as the foreign customer-following motive. All firms when internationalizing are using high-commitment entry modes. No relationship between type of motive and entry mode is found in either industry. Both industries are supporting the internationalization patterns of the Uppsala model to varying degrees. Contacts as enablers of internationalization as the Network theory states are confirmed by all firms. The partner network is further added with two new sub groups, competitor networks and owner networks. These networks are found to be the most common in the PR industry. The advertising industry and the PR industry are similar, but not the same. Keywords: Advertising, PR, internationalization, internationalization motives, entry modes, eight cases, Sweden, Uppsala model, network theory

2. Introduction
Firm internationalization as subject has attracted the attention of many authors over the years. Studies regarding this topic started to emerge in the 1960s and the focus was mainly large manufacturing firms for several decades (Johanson and Vahlne 1977, 1990; Reid 1981; Vernon 1966). During the 1970s another group of firms gained increased interest from researchers, namely the service firms (Brimmer and Dahl 1975; Gaedeke 1973; Weinstein 1977). The service firm



References: 25/10, 66= 2, 34 10 (2007/2008) 10/10, 66= 0, 93 180 180/10, 66= 16, 88 74 (2007/2008) 74/10, 66= 6, 94 30 (2007/2008) 30/10, 66= 2, 81 10,5 10, 5/10, 66= 0, 98 100 (2007/2008) 100/10, 66= 9, 38 Hallvarsson & Halvarsson 106 140 (2007/2008) 140/10, 66= Medium 13, 33 42 Longitudinal case, this type of case is concerned with how a situation changes over time (Bryman and Bell 2007) Annual report 2007/2008 Resumé (2008-12-01) PR326 Coast Communications Geelmuyden.Kiese Resumé (2008-09-04) Resumé (2007-12-13) Cap&Design Resumé Veckans Affärer (2008-04-28) Bolagsfakta (2008-04-24 )

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