Zara Case

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Introducción

Zara es una de las principales empresas de moda internacional. Pertenece a Inditex, uno de los mayores grupos de distribución del mundo. El cliente es el centro del modelo de negocio, que integra diseño, fabricación, distribución y venta, a través de una red de tiendas propias. Todos los procesos, desde la creación del producto, comparten el mismo objetivo: dar al cliente la moda que espera.1

Las tiendas Zara, con 1417 2 tiendas en 69 países, proyectan desde los escaparates, la mejor publicidad para la marca. Las tiendas Zara han pegado con la fórmula de administración de la cadena de distribución que trabaja por la desafiante sabiduría convencional.

Zara empezó en 1963 cuando Amancio Ortega Gaona abrió Confecciones GOA en La Coruña para manufacturar pijamas y productos de lencería para mujer. En 1975, la firma abrió su primera tienda. La intención original fue tener un outlet para la cancelación de órdenes de los clientes. Sin embargo, la experiencia le enseñó a la firma la importancia de un “matrimonio” entre la fabricación y la venta al público.

En paralelo con su expansión, Inditex diversificó su venta al público ofreciendo nuevas marcas como Pull & Bear, Massimo Dutti, Bershka, Stradivariuos y Oysho para satisfacer nuevos segmentos de clientes. Cada marca de Inditex opera independientemente, pero comparte el compromiso de distribuir moda a precios accesibles y emplear modelos de administración para el control del total de la cadena de distribución para maximizar la rapidez del mercado.

Nuevamente utilizamos los términos de Integración vertical y horizontal, así como otros más.

Integración Vertical:

“Las compañías integradas verticalmente están unidas por una jerarquía y comparten un mismo dueño. Generalmente, los miembros de esta jerarquía desarrollan tareas diferentes que se combinan para satisfacer una necesidad común. Esa necesidad común proviene de generar economías de escala en cada compañía, y sinergias dentro de

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