Youth Suicide

Topics: Suicide, Psychiatry, Mental disorder Pages: 10 (3224 words) Published: March 21, 2011

Fact Sheet

by Michiko Otsuki, Tia Kim, and Paul Peterson

Introduction Youth suicide is a major public health problem in the United States today. Each year in the U.S., thousands of teenagers commit suicide. Suicide is the third leading cause of death for 15-24 year olds, and the fifth leading cause of death for 5-14 year olds. (American Foundation of Suicide Prevention [AFSP], 2010; National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS],2006) The reduction of adolescent suicide is one of the major objectives of the Healthy People 2010 Initiative (Department of Health and Human Services, 2010). Scope of the Problem Age and gender differences Suicide is less common during childhood and the early teen years (Gould & Kramer, 2001). In 2006, the rate was .5 suicides per 100,000 children aged 10-14. (AFSP, 2010; NCHS, 2006) Suicide mortality increases considerably in the late teens and continues into the early twenties for both males and females. Although females are more likely than males to attempt suicide, males are roughly five times as likely to success in their suicide attempts. Ethnic differences American Indian/Alaska Native youth have the highest prevalence of suicide across all age groups. In this group males have the higher prevalence. European-American youth have the next highest prevalence. Their prevalence is higher than that of AfricanAmerican, Latino, and Asian-American/Pacific Islander youth. Although research suggests that Native American and Latino youth have the highest suicide-related fatalities (Centers for Disease Control [CDC], 2009), Latino female youth are more likely to attempt suicide than all other groups of youth (National Adolescent Health Information Center, 2006). Methods of youth suicide Firearm death remains the most prevalent method of suicide, regardless of age, gender, and ethnicity. It accounts for 46% of suicide deaths among youths (CDC, 2009). The 1

second and third most prevalent methods of youth suicide are hanging and poisoning, respectively. The gender difference in the rates of completed suicide is largely explained by the gender differences in suicide methods. Females are more likely to poison themselves whereas males are more likely to shoot themselves. Firearms are more lethal than poison. Nonlethal suicide behaviors For every completed suicide, an estimated 100 to 200 suicide attempts are made. Attempted suicides are a risk factor for successful suicide. Risk Factors Suicidal behaviors are complex and have multiple risk factors. Psychopathology The majority of youth who have completed suicide had significant psychiatric problems, including depressive disorders and substance abuse disorders. Major depression has been the most prevalent condition. The intensity of a person’s suicidal intent is associated with a history of depression and anxiety and current stress from a mental disorder (Koutek, Kocourkova, Hladikova & Hrdlicka, 2009). Although many mental disorders increase the odds of suicide ideation, disorders characterized by anxiety and poor impulse-control increase the odds of actual suicide attempts (Kwoy & Shek, 2009). Female youth suicides have a higher prevalence of an affective disorder than male youth suicides. Substance abuse is also a significant risk factor, especially for older adolescent male victims (Shaffer et al., 1996) and when co-occurring with an affective disorder (Gould & Kramer, 2001). Previous suicide attempts One quarter to one-third of youth suicide victims make suicide attempts prior to their completed suicide. Anxiety lowers the likelihood of one-time suicide attempts but increases the likelihood of repeated suicide attempts (Brezo, Paris, Herbert, Vitaro, Tremblay & Turecki, 2008). With each successive attempt, the risk of completed suicide increases -- for male adolescents the risk is thirty times higher,...

References: Almeida J, Johnson RM, Corliss HL, Molnar BE, Azrael D. Emotional distress among LGBT youth: the influence of perceived discrimination based on sexual orientation. J Youth Adolesc 2009; 38(7):1001-14. Anonymous. National Adolescent Health Information Center. Fact Sheet on Suicide: Adolescents & Young Adults. San Francisco, CA: University of California, San Francisco, 2006. Baca-Garcia E, Perez-Rodriguez MM, Mann JJ, Oquendo MA. Suicidal behavior in young women. Psychiatr Clin North Am 2008; 31, 2(June):317-31. Barbui C, Esposito E, Cipriani A. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of suicide: a systematic review of observational studies. CMAJ 2009; 180, 3(Feb):291-7. Braquehais MD, Oquendo MA, Baca-García E, Sher L. Is impulsivity a link between childhood abuse and suicide? Compr Psychiatry 2010; 51, 2(March-April):121-9. Brent DA, Perper JA, Moritz GM, Baugher M, Schweers J, Ross C. Firearms and adolescent suicide: A community case control study. American Journal of Diseases of Children 1993; 147:1066-1071. Brezo J, Paris J, Hébert M, Vitaro F, Tremblay R, Turecki G. Broad and narrow personality traits as markers of one-time and repeated suicide attempts: a populationbased study. BMC Psychiatry 2008; 8(March):15. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth Suicide Prevention Programs: A Resource Guide. Atlanta, GA: Center for Disease Control, 1992. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Programs for the prevention of suicide among adolescents and young adults; and suicide contagion and the reporting of suicide. Recommendations from a national workshop. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 1994; 43(6), 1-18. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth risk behavior surveillance-United States, 1997. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 1998; 47(SS-3), 1-89. Cha C, Nock M. Emotional intelligence is a protective factor for suicidal behavior. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2009; 48, 4(Apr):422-30.
Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health (2nd ed.). Washington DC, U.S.: Government Printing Office, 2000. Demetriades D, Murray J, Myles D, et al. Epidemiology of major trauma and trauma deaths in Los Angeles County. Journal of the American College of Surgery 1998; 187, 373-383. Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ, Beautrais AL. Is sexual orientation related to mental health problems and suicidality in young people. Archives of General Psychiatry 1999; 56:612-622. Gao Y, Li LP, Kim JH, Congdon N, Lau J, Griffiths S. The impact of parental migration on health status and health behaviours among left behind adolescent school children in China. BMC Public Health 2010; 10(Feb):56. Garofalo R, Wolf RC, Wissow LS, Woods ER, Goodman E. Sexual orientation and risk of suicide attempts among a representative sample of youth. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2001; 155(3):487-493. Goldston DB, Molock SD, Whitbeck LB, Murakami JL, Zayas LH, Hall GC. Cultural considerations in adolescent suicide prevention and psychosocial treatment. Am Psychol. 2008; 63, 1(Jan):14-31. Gould MS. Suicide and the media. In H. Hendin, & J. J. Mann (Eds.), Suicide Prevention: Clinical and Scientific Aspects. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. New York: Academy of Sciences, 2001. Gould MS, Fisher P, Parides M, Flory M, Shaffer D. Psychosocial risk factors of child and adolescent completed suicide. Archives of General Psychiatry 1996; 53:1155-1162. Gould MS Kramer RA. Youth suicide prevention. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 2001; 31 (Suppl):6-31. Gould MS, Wallenstein S, Kleinman M. Time-space clustering of teenage suicide. American Journal of Epidemiology 1990; 131:71-78. Kaminski JW, Fang X. Victimization by peers and adolescent suicide in three US samples. J Pediatr 2009; 155, 5(Nov):683-8. Kellermann AL, Rivera FP, Somes G, et al. Suicide in the home in relation to gun ownership. New England Journal of Medicine 1992; 327:467-472. King CA, O 'Mara RM, Hayward CN, Cunningham RM. Adolescent suicide risk screening in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med 2009; 16, 11(Nov):1234-41.
Kohli MA; Young K; Conwell Y. Archives of General Psychiatry Feb 1, 2010. Koutek J, Kocourkova J, Hladikova M, Hrdlicka M. Suicidal behavior in children and adolescents: does a history of trauma predict less severe suicidal attempts? Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2009; 30, 1(March):99-106. Kwok SY, Shek DT. Social problem solving, family functioning, and suicidal ideation among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. Adolescence, 2009; 44(174):391-406. McBride HEA, Siegel, LS. Learning disabilities and adolescent suicide. Journal of Learning Disabilities 1997; 30(6): 652-659. McDainel JS, Purcell D, D’Augelli AR. The relationship between sexual orientation and risk for suicide: Research findings and future directions for research and prevention. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior 2001; 31(1, Suppl): 84-105. Nock MK, Hwang I, Sampson N, et al. Cross-national analysis of the associations among mental disorders and suicidal behavior: findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. 2009; Epub e1000123 (PLoS Med; 6, 8) Pfeffer CR, McBride A, Anderson GM, Kakuma T, Fensterheim L, Khait V. Peripheral serotonin measures in prepubertal psychiatric inpatients and normal children: Associations with suicidal behavior and its risk factors. Biological Psychiatry 1998; 44:568-577. Phillips D, Carstensen LL. Clustering of teenage suicides after television news stories about suicide. New England Journal of Medicine 1986; 315:685-689. Reinherz HA, Giaconia RM, Silverman AB, et al. Early psychosocial risks for adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1995; 34:599-611. Schulsinger F. Biological psychopathology. Annual Review of Psychology 1980; 31: 583-606. Shaffer D, Gould MS, Fisher P, et al. Psychiatric diagnosis in child and adolescent suicide. Archives of General Psychiatry 1996; 53:339-348. Shiner M, Scourfield J, Fincham B, Langer S. When things fall apart: Gender and suicide across the life-course. Soc Sci Med 2009; 69, 5(Sept):738-46. Swahn MH, Bossarte RM, Ashby JS, Meyers J. Pre-teen alcohol use initiation and suicide attempts among middle and high school students: Findings from the 2006 Georgia Student Health Survey. Addict Behav 2009; Epub ahead of print.
Thompson EA, Eggert LL, Randell BP, Pike KC. Evaluation of indicated suicide risk prevention approaches for potential high school dropouts. American Journal of Public Health 2001; 91:742-752. Vega WA, Gil AG, Warheit GJ, Apospori E. The relationship of drug use to suicide ideation and attempts among African American, Hispanic, and White non-Hispanic male adolescents. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior 1993; 23(2): 110-119. Wagner BM, Cole RE, Schwartzman P. Psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among junior and senior high school youth. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior 1995; 25:358-372. Wallace LJD, Calhoun AD, Powell KE, O’Neill J, James SP. Homicide and suicide among Native Americans, 1979-1992. Atlanta, GA: Center for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury and Prevention and Control, 1996;(Violence Surveillance Series, Vol. 2). Wu YW, Su YJ, Chen CK. Clinical characteristics, precipitating stressors, and correlates of lethality among suicide attempters. Chang Gung Med J 2009; 32, 5(SeptOct):543-52. Yilmaz TA, Riecher-Rössler A. Suicide attempts among first and second generation immigrants. Neuropsychiatr 2008; 22(4):261-7. Zayas LH, Bright CL, Alvarez-Sánchez T, Cabassa LJ. Acculturation, familism and mother-daughter relations among suicidal and non-suicidal adolescent Latinas. J Prim Prev 2009; 30,3-4(July):351-69. Internet Resources American Association of Suicidology (ASA): American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (AFSP): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent Suicide (1999): Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Division of Violence Prevention: 9
CDC’s SafeUSA Guide to Preventing Suicide: Suicide statistics from CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics:
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Destorying Lives: Suicide Among Youth Essay
  • Suicide Essay
  • Adolescents and Suicide Essay
  • Suicide Prevention Essay
  • teen suicide Essay
  • Suicide in Teen Research Paper
  • Teen Suicide Essay
  • Essay about Causes of Teenage Suicide

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free