Diet of Worms/Edict (decree) of Worms (1521)
Luther presented his views to a ruling assembly in Worms over which Emperor Charles V presided. Luther declared that if he recanted, he would be acting against Scripture, reason, and his conscience. He was placed under the imperial ban.
German Peasant’s War (1525)
German peasants opposed the efforts of their lords to override their traditional laws and customs and to subject them to new territorial regulations and taxes. Peasant leaders felt that Luther’s teachings showed he believed in very a lot of the same things the German peasants believed in (freedom, the ridding of monastic landowners). Peasants wanted a release from serfdom, so they revolted.
Luther found this un-Christian and urged the princes to crush the revolt mercilessly. Between 70,000 and 10,000 peasants died.
16th century ancestors of the modern Mennonites and Amish
rejection of infant baptism/ insistence on only adult baptism (as with the case of Jesus, who was baptized as an adult) Anabaptism derives from the Greek word meaning “to rebaptize.” Conrad Grebel
had group called Swiss Brethren
Schleitheim Confession (1527)
refusal to swear oaths
nonparticipation in the offices of secular government
physically separated from society to create a more perfect communion modeled on the first Christians persecuted by Lutherans, Catholics, and Zwinglians
In 1529, rebaptism became a capital offense within the Holy Roman Empire forced Lutherans and Catholics in the city to either convert or to emigrate (occurred in Munster) Besieging armies blockaded Munster.
transformed into Old Testament theocracy
polygamy (Women had been widowed and left by their husbands. This was a way to care for all of the women.) Modern Devotion (Brotherhood of Common Life)
boarding school for reform-minded laity
centered in the Netherlands
educated boys preparing for a monastic vocation
seen as the source of humanist, Protestant, and Catholic reform movements in the 16th century Schmaldkaldic League
formed in the 1530s by German Protestant lands (powerful defensive alliance) Goal was to be prepared for war with the Catholic emperor.
[Ulrich] Huldereich Zwingli
leader of Swiss Reformation
Whatever lacked literal support in Scripture was to neither be believed nor practiced. petitioned to an end of clerical celibacy and for the right of clergy legally to marry (a practice accepted in all Protestant lands) became people’s priest in Zurich
disagreed with Luther over transubstantiation
The bread and wine are not Jesus’s body and blood.
Swiss Civil Wars
As the Swiss cantons divided themselves between Protestantism and Catholicism, civil wars erupted. 2 major battles in Kappel [June 1429 ( Protestant victory, which forced the Catholic cantons to break their foreign alliances and to recognize the right of the Swiss Protestants) & (Zwingli lay wounded on battlefield, and is then executed.) October 1531] Subsequent treaty affirmed the right of each canton (subdivision of a country) to determine its own religion. Act of Supremacy
declared King Henry VIII the only supreme head in earth of the Church of England Sir Thomas More and John Fisher refused to recognize this and were executed. Henry VIII
asked Pope Julius II to divorce him and his wife Catherine of Aragon who had not produced a surviving son Pope refused.
In January 1531, the Convocation publicly recognized Henry as the head of the Church of England Catherine of Aragon
the widow of King Henry VIII’s brother, Arthur
wife of Henry
divorced because she did not produced a surviving son that would be the heir to the throne Anne Boleyn
King Henry VIII’s second wife
gave birth to Queen Elizabeth I
executed for alleged treason and adultery
Sir Thomas More
best known English humanist
depicted an imaginary society based on reason and...
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