1. P. J. van Beneden proposed that an egg and a sperm, each containing half the complement of chromosomes found in somatic cells, fuse to produce a single cell called a _______.
2. _______ is a process of nuclear division in which the number of chromosomes in certain cells is halved during gamete formation.
3. ______ cells such as gametes contain one set of chromosomes.
4. Organisms that undertake sexual reproduction alternate between ______ and fertilization.
5. The two homologous chromosomes pair along their length early in the first nuclear division. During this physical joining genetic exchange occurs between them in a process called __________.
6. In _______ mode of reproduction, the chromosomes of the daughter cells and the parent cells are identical.
7. Sexual reproduction and the close association between homologous chromosomes that occurs during meiosis probably evolved as a mechanism to repair __________ damage.
8. Sexual reproduction is significant in increasing genetic ______.
9. Unlike meiosis I, there is no doubling of ___ before the start of meiosis II.
10. Evidence of crossing over can often be seen under the light microscope as an X-shaped structure known as ________.
11. The fusion of male gamete cells with female gamete cells is called A. syngamy B. meiosis C. mitosis D. recombination E. synapsis
12. Diploid organisms use meiosis for the development of gametes. Meiosis consist of how many rounds of nuclear division? A. one B. two C. three D. four E. answer not given
13. The pairing of chromosomes along their lengths which is essential for crossing-over is referred to as A. syngamy B. synapsis C. a tetrad D. recombination E. centromere
14. A common form of reproduction in arthropods involves the development of an adult from an unfertilized egg. This is called A. syngamy B. binary fission C. mitosis D.