Xerxes

Good Essays
Xerxes succession to the throne after his father, Darius, was not straightforward as many factors surrounding hi succession of the Persian kingship from Darius influenced xerxes succession.
During the time Darius was king he had other children outside his marriage to Atossa. As Artabazanes was Darius’ eldest son, he had appeared to be named as Darius’ successor in 507BC. Quarrels over the succession of the new king erupted between followers of Xerxes and Artabazanes. Artabazanes claimed that he was the eldest son of all children of Darius and that it was among all mankind that custom for the eldest son to take over the rule as the new king was not selected on the principle of primogeniture but according to modern historian J.M Cook Xerxes had a stronger claim than his brother because he was the son of Atossa, the daughter of Cyrus the great. Hence, Herodotus tells us that the solution was provided by Demaratus, an exiled Spartan king, who pointed that xerxes was the first-born son after Darius became king.
Xerxes is shown in the reliefs at Persepolis as the heir standing behind his enthroned father suggesting he was next to the throne. Herodotus tells us that xerxes was being prepared to be king from a young age as he was taught, “to ride, to use the bow, and seek the truth” three fundamental teachings for a Persian king. Prior to becoming king, Darius placed Xerxes in the position of satrap of Babylon for 12 years from him to gain experience in a position of power and authority. Also in 498 a palace was built for the kings’ son in Babylon.
The invasion of Greece, planned by his father, was put on hold because he faced a rebellion in Egypt in 486bc. Xerxes led the campaign against Egypt and ‘decisively crushed them’ (Herodotus) and reduced the Egyptians to abject slavery and placed the country once again firmly under Persian control. Unlike, his father, who made an attempt to preserve Egyptian culture and customs, Xerxes showed no tolerance. He not only treated

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays

    Ancient and modern sources present differing views of Xerxes. It’s difficult to make a judgment of Xerxes character and effectiveness as a King since there is a bias in a majority of these sources.…

    • 997 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Xerxes

    • 497 Words
    • 2 Pages

    * “Xerxes was a religious fanatic who deviated from the religious tolerance of his predecessors…he has become a paradigm for religious bigotry, fanatically interfering in sacred matters where his predecessors had kept a distance.” – Granger…

    • 497 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Xerxes

    • 4078 Words
    • 17 Pages

    Xerxes was born a royal prince and would have had all the respect and prestige associated with his status. He was not the eldest son of King Darius I. Darius had three sons by another wife whilst he was still but a lord. For Darius to strengthen his calm to the Persian throne, Darius married Atossa , the daughter of Cyrus the Great. Xerxes was the eldest son of this union. This made Xerxes the son of the king, grandson of the founder of the empire and the son with the most royal blood. Herodotus recorded that Persian Males were educated between the ages of five and twenty.…

    • 4078 Words
    • 17 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    One of the great challenges faced by Xerxes during his time as ruler of the Persian Empire, was the method by which the revolts in both Egypt and Babylon would be dealt with. Essentially, he dealt with the revolts in two different ways; firstly using his military force to quickly and decisively quell the revolts; which were followed by either political or administrative reforms (or a combination of both). These methods reflected his ability to administer the grandeur that was Persia.…

    • 911 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    The beginning of the rule of Xerxes was the pivotal turning point of the Persian Empire. It is said that he was an unjust ruler, who was growing intolerant of the different people in his empire. In order to take out rebellions happening in the empire, he would destroy temples, kill religious leaders, and enslave some of his people. His rule is quite a contrast to that of those before him. He also started promoting the Persian gods above the others, something that was different to what other Persian kings did. What Amy Chua says at the end of this chapter pretty much sums up why the Persian Empire eventually…

    • 359 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Herodotus was a Greek historian whose work encompassed Western civilization involving conflicts between Greece and the Persian Empire. There were many differences between the Greeks and the Persians. For instance, the Greeks struggled to find freedom during 480 B.C – 400 B.C. They were determined to train their soldiers, especially Spartan warriors, to be brave, courageous, and strong for defensive purposes from Persian invasion. On the other hand, the Persians differed from the Greeks because they believed their Empire needed more power. The Persians exercised gaining absolute power under their leader, Xerxes, by invading civilization west of Asia to strengthen their Empire. Xerxes’ intentions for invasion were also based on vengeance from previous battles for expansion of their Empire. Xerxes motives for invading Greece were tyrannical, and the events that lead the Persian Empire western invasion were based on reckless intentions from a ruthless leader.…

    • 777 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    The Persian Empire ruled from 559 to 330 B.C.E. Around 2000 B.C.E. the Aryans conquered modern day Persia. The Achaemenid Empire began with Cyrus the Great and he became a king beneath Astyages in ancient Persia. In 550 B.C.E. Cyrus took complete control over the Median kingdom. By 539 B.C.E. Cyrus the Great had conquered both the Lydian and Babylonian kingdoms. After conquering a kingdom he would “decapitate” the leader (not by beheading them but by replacing the existing leader with one of his choosing). Cyrus interfered very little with those beneath the leader which kept them happy and prevented them from revolting. Cyrus almost always honored his subject’s religion by allowing them to worship in peace and not destroy their places of worship. Cyrus the Great ended his reign in 530 B.C.E. Darius the Great ruled from 522-486 B.C.E. Darius expanded the Persian Empire into India. When not occupied by military endeavors Darius was a great administrator, he built extravagant capitals, introduced a standard currency, and extended the road network. Darius also organized a navy comprised of the Greeks and the Egyptians. Alexander the Great took the throne in 336 B.C.E. immediately following his father’s assassination. Alexander continued to follow his predecessors and employ tolerance for tactical reasons. By 324 B.C.E. Greece was the most powerful empire in the world making Alexander the Great the most powerful man in the world at that time.…

    • 1755 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Good Essays

    Day of Empire Essay

    • 1724 Words
    • 7 Pages

    The great Persian empire ruled from 559 to 330 BCE founded Cyrus the great. Cyrus was very tolerant towards religion and explored alternative cultures as well as allowing the conquered people to join him. In 550 BCE, Cyrus defeated Astyages (his grandfather) and took over Assyria, Mesopotamia, Syria, Armenia and Cappadocia. In 539, Cyrus became the ruler of the largest empire to ever exist after conquering Lydian, Median, and Babylonian. Cambyses took over the empire after Cyrus died and ruled from 530-522 BCE, expanding the empire. Darius the great ruled from 522-486 BCE. Darius helped the empire increase in tolerance. He encouraged the people to do what they wanted. When he conquered people he encouraged them to join him and benefitted off them joining by increasing diversity throughout the kingdom and used their skills and…

    • 1724 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    2. How did Darius organize his empire politically – how did he govern, what were the levels of government in the empire?…

    • 928 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Essay 1

    • 277 Words
    • 2 Pages

    According to the essay Herodotus: Xerxes Invades Greece, from The Histories, Herodotus was a very famous historian, who gave his account of the battle of Thermopylae. It is significant though to recognize that Herodotus was Greek and giving an account of what happened when the Persians defeated them. In the text Xerxes has many incidents that portray him as superstitious and tyrannical. Some examples of Xerxes’ tyranny is his plans to “march an army through Europe against Greece,” his want to not rest until he has taken and burnt Athens, wants to extend the Persian territory throughout all of Europe, his beheading of his master- builders, and his lack of mercy towards his slave and his five sons. Xerxes shows his superstitions when he sends for the Magians to tell him why the sun has disappeared, and the day has so quickly tuned to night. Turning to the actions in battle, those of the Spartans tell me that they are a strong willed people who do not give up easily, if at all, even when faced with a great challenge and are outnumbered. Besides this essay showing the Greeks strong will, this essay seems to promote their use of wit and skill in tricking the Persians into thinking there were less of them than there actually was. The account was written by a Greek, so the information in the story would cast them in a more positive light. Lastly, in our text, Western Civilization, there is a thurough evaluation of the significance of the Persian invasions on the Greek political and intellectual…

    • 277 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Xerxes Administration Essay

    • 3811 Words
    • 10 Pages

    Cyrus II had established the administrative basis for the empire, where his son Darius perfected the system around 519 BCE. According to Herodotus, Darius’ administration was later followed by all successive kings, including his own son Xerxes. He notes that Xerxes, who succeeded kingship in 486BC inherited the empire created by his three predecessors; Cyrus the Great, Cambyses and Darius the I. Modern historian Olmstead, explains that the Persian empire was a hereditary monarchy, meaning that the descendants of Achaemenes, the Archaemenids, formed the royal dynasty where they ruled by the grace of Ahuramazda. It has generally been established by many modern scholars such as Granger, that Xerxes and his predecessors were not considered gods, but were absolute monarchs and autocrats, who claimed religious and hereditary sanction for their rule, by the grace of Ahuramazda. Like his father Darius, Xerxes was an absolute ruler, where all his subjects had to obey him. On the Naqsh I…

    • 3811 Words
    • 10 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    There is much scholarly debate on Xerxes’ rise to prominence due to the contradictory nature of primary sources; both archaeological and epigraphic, particularly regarding challenges to the throne. The political system was particularly murky in the area of succession; with no clear rules established by the time of Xerxes. Herodotus, as the focal primary source for Xerxes’ rise to prominence; must be indefinitely treated with due caution, given his Greek heritage, tendency to caricature the Persians, and overplay their power in order to increase the ‘underdog’ nature of the Greeks. There are various factors to be considered in Xerxes’ rise to power; particularly other claimants to the throne; most notably Artobazanes. However, Xerxes held greater claim to the throne due to genetic links, and public approval.…

    • 476 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Furthermore, Alexander was very smart because, he accepted the offer of Ada and established her as queen of all Caria and Halicarnassus to sustain his power. In 333 B.C, he fought against Darius in the Battle of Issus and defeated him in that battle and forced him to flee. Alexander keeps expanding his region based on his well-trained army and their support .In 332 B.C, he wins siege of Tyre and attacks Gaza and shows his dominance to other kings. By 331 B.C, Alexander found new city called Alexandria and won battle of Gaugamela against Darius. As a result, Alexander’s claim to be king of Persia was sealed with blood and iron (Roberts0). In between, there was tension growing in his empire, Cletius was military commander and saved Alexander’s life in battle of Gaugamela started talking inappropriate about Alexander’s family in drunk condition. Due to Claudius’s bad comment on Alexander’s mother, Alexander killed Cletius and felt regret afterwards.(Robert 86) . After Alexander’s capture in 327 B.C. of Sogdian Rock, a teenager daughter names Roxanne came there and he fell in love at first sight. Afterwards, Alexander and Roxanne had a traditional wedding. Furthermore, having conquered Persia heartland, Alexander goes eastward and fought for seven years. He kept expanding his region by not only pushing his army eastern parts…

    • 1227 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Final Study Guide

    • 495 Words
    • 2 Pages

    1. The great Persian invasion under Xerxes was a crucial factor in cementing the ties of Greek ethnicity and a sense of separation from other peoples. It is no accident that the great playwright Aeschylus asked that his tombstone be engraved only with a mention of participation in the war and was content to omit his dramatic victories. What were the causes of this invasion? What was the Persian strategy? How did the Greeks respond to the threat? What were the crucial battles in the war and finally why did the Persians fail?…

    • 495 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Ancient History/Persepolis

    • 1178 Words
    • 5 Pages

    The Persian kings were considered to be the ‘king of kings’. They were presented as great worriers, strong leaders, and magnificent successors. They were considered as a godly figure.…

    • 1178 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays