room dividers, and a tokonoma, or ceremonial alcove, to place scrolls of calligraphy and flower arrangements. All of these features become central to Japanese architecture and room furnishing. •
The warfare in this period is so intense and the society so torn apart that the major goal of the daimyo who reunify Japan in 1600 is the establishment of order. The Tokugawa period, 1600 -1868, is thus distinguished from the medieval period by the cessation of warfare and the evolution of a pre-modern society marked by commercial development and urbanization, as discussed in Topic 8: China, Japan and Korea: the Ming, the Qing, Tokugawa, and Chosun. •
Literature in medieval Japan reflects the Buddhist notion of the impermanence of life and the need to renounce worldly attachments to gain release from the sufferings of human existence is reflected in the literature of the period: An Account of My Hut, Essays in Idleness, Noh drama. •
The establishment of warrior government
The establishment of the bakufu by Minamoto Yoritomo at the end of the 12th century can be regarded as the beginning of a new era, one in which independent government by the warrior class successfully opposed the political authority of the civil aristocracy. Modern scholarly interpretation, however, has retreated from recognizing a major break and the establishment of feudal institutions with the founding of the Kamakura regime. During the Kamakura period, total warrior dominance was not achieved. There was, instead, what approached a dyarchy with civil power in Kyōto and military power in Kamakura sharing authority for governing the nation. Institutions of the Heian imperial-aristocratic system remained in place throughout the Kamakura age, replaced with new feudal institutions when Kamakura passed from the scene. •
During the Gempei War, Yoritomo established his headquarters in Kamakura and entrusted the suppression of the Taira to his younger brothers Noriyori and Yoshitsune. Meanwhile, he gathered...
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