Four goals of Psychology: Description, Explanation, Prediction, Influence
Basic Research: Conducted to seek new knowledge and advance scientific understanding
Adv. Research: Conducted to solve practical problems
Difference between applied & Basic: Basic research is intended to seek new knowledge and explore understanding whereas applied to to improve quality of life.
Questionaires: Completed more quickly and less expensively than interviews. More accurate.
Theory: A set of principles to understanding how a number of seperate ideas are related.
Descriptive research methods: Research methods that yield descriptions of behaviors rather than casual explations
Naturalistic observation: A research method in which researchers observe and record behaviours without trying to influence or control it.
Case study: An in-depth study of one or a few participants Consisting of information gathered through observation, interviews, and perhaps psychological testing
Survey: A method used/ interviews/questionaires gathering information about attitudes, beliefs, experiences, or behaviours of a group of people
Adv- if done correctly can provide highly accurate information about larger group
Limitation of survey: omaccirate information because of faulty memor or a desire to please interviewer.
Population: The entire group of interest to researchers to which they wish to generalize their findings; the group from which a sample is selected
Sample: The protion of any population that is selected for study and from which generalization are made about the larger population
Representative sample: A sample of participants selected from a larger population in such a way that important subgroups within the popilation are included in the sample in the same proportions as they are found in the larger population
Correlational method: A research method used to establish the relationship between two characteristics – events, or behaviors
Correlation coefficient: A numberical value that indicates the strength of the relationships between two variables; ranges from +1.00(perfecent positive correlation) to -1.00(percent negative)
Two types of varibles
Variables: Independent variable: Is the factor that is manipulated( treatment veruses no treatment)
Dependent variable: is the factor measured at the end of the experiment
two types of groups
experimental group: consists of partiipants who are exposed to the treatment
control group: consists of participants who are exposed to the same environment as the experimental group, except for treatment
Random assignment: is the control for selection bias.
Adv---> only research method that has the ability to reveal cause-effect relationship ---> employs a high degree of control to rule out other sources of influence
disadv: geberalizability issues
-cannot be performed in many areas of psychology due to ethical issues
Structuralism: tried to break conscious experience down to its basic elements. Introspection was used as a primary technique
Functionalism: Studied the fuction, or purpose of consciousness
Gestalt Psych: Emphasizes that individuals perecieve objects and patterns as whole unit, and that the persceieved whole is more than just the sum of its parts
Behaviourism: Rejects the study of conciousness in favor of observable behaviour. Behaviour is determined by the factors in the enviornment
Cognitive psychology: Focuses on mental processes such as memory, reasoning, language, and perception.
Humanistic psychology: Focuses on the uniqueness of human beings and their capacity for choice, growth and psychological health
Psycholoanalysis: Emphasises that unconcious mental forces are the key determation of behaviour
Personality three componenets:
Id(pleasure principle, seeks immediate pleasure, avoids pain, and seeks immediate gratification) is present at birth, inheritedm and totally unconcioncious
Ego is rational, largely conscious, and operates on the reality principle(tries to satisfy the id without violating moral values
Superego: contains mainly unconscious memories of behavours that have been either punushied ( he concious) or rewarded ( the ego ideal)
Sexual stages of development:
Age Range: Birth to 1 Year
Pleasure is derived from stimulation of Mouth
Age Range: 1 to 3 years
Pleasure from expelling and withholding feces.
Age Range: 3 to 6 Years
Pleasure from genitals. Oepidus complex refers to a child's sexual attraction to opposite-sexp arent and hostility to same-sex parent
Age Range: 6 to Puberty
Sexual instinct repressed and sublimated in school and play activities
Age Range: Puberty to Death
Focus of sexual energy shifts to the opposite-sex peers with whom a person establishes a mature sexual relationship
Observation, interviews, and rating scales have been used to measure persoanlity. May be biased by halo effect(influenced by one or a few traits)
Persoanlity inventories are objective questiares that require written responses to statements
Behavioural genetics is a field that investigates ther elative effect of hereidty and environment on behaviour and ability
Repression: Blocking or removing unpleasant thoughts
Denial: Refusing to accept reality or fact
Rationalization: supplying a logical, rational, or socially acceptable reason in place of the reason Regression: reverting to behaviour that might have reduced anxiety at an earlier age Reaction formation: expressing the opposite of one's true feelings Displacement: subsitituing a less threatening object for the original object Projection: attributing one's own undesirable thoughts to others Sublimation: Transformation of negative emotions or instincts into positive actions
Opnesses to experience