World History Chapter 13 questions
1 It helped set the stage because long distance trade was happening between east and west Asia already which brought the influence and beginning of silk roads.
2 The fine spices-cloves, nutmeg, mace, and cardamom came from Southeast Asia. Ginger came from China and Southeast Asia, pepper from India, and sesame oil from India, Arabia, and Southeast Asia. Central Asia produced large, strong horses and high-quality jade. The Roman Empire came glassware, jewelry, works of art, decorative items, perfumes, bronze goods, wool and linen textiles, pottery, iron tools, olive oil, wine, and gold and silver bullion.
3 The Silk Road facilitated the spread of all three religions since the Silk Road was a trade route. Although the Silk Road was made to trade only silk, many other things were traded in that road as well. All societies came together which because and during that, they took back Hinduism and Christian ideas, spreading them to many places.
4. The rise of Manichaeism shows a good example of the relationship between long distance trade and the spread of religion because the fact that Mani was in a Persian society and already had a religion that society only wanted to believe in their one and only religion. But many, being along the Silk Road, he shows how he has a better opportunity of spreading his religion through the Silk Road since in the Silk Road many people from different places come and leave back with new ideas.
5. The long term effects of these diseases were the problem the silk road became since the silk road was a trade route, it became an easy way to spread diseases throughout all cities. It grew through China traveling through other places, which was called the black death pandemic.
6. China's culture change because, after the decline of the Han dynasty nomadic people increasingly adapted to the Chinese culture and there was a change in believe system from Confucianism to Buddhism
7. The Roman authority dissolved and the nomadic peoples built successor states in regions formerly subject to Rome.
8. The Byzantium inherited many things from the Roman Empire that helped it thrive. These were Roads, communication, lines of authority, and imperial institutions.
9. Aristocrats predominated, but talent also counted among this elite of highly educated scholars. Complex administration around a remote emperor, who was surrounded by elaborate rituals
10. Reduced confusion, united and organized new empire, paralleling state bureaucracy, helped spread Roman legal principles in various parts of Europe
11. Byzantium got a new enemy. Despite the fact that the Byzantine empire didn't really like western Europe, it couldn't really fight the Europeans because they're both Christians, but the Islamic empires weren't, and the Byzantines and the Muslims fought, and the Byzantines lost, leading to the rise of the Ottoman Empire, and the fall of the Byzantine empire.
12. The theme system was a method of providing troops for the Byzantine army. It was introduced by the emperor Constans around 650 AD. Citizen farmers were given land to work in return for military service when required. The system was hereditary, so the citizens actually owned the land; however, the obligation for military service was also hereditary, but this meant that the empire had a constant supply of manpower for the military from generation to generation. As both the empire and the farmers were prosperous, the theme system allowed the Byzantines to put large, well equipped armies into the field. Each theme was able to produce 12,800 front line troops, and in 700 there were 10 themes for producing soldiers, and 3 for providing manpower for the navy. This meant the Byzantines could put over 120,000 well equipped troops in the field at any given time. The theme system started to decline from 963, when military reforms introduced by emperor Nikephoras II Phokas emphasized the role of the Tagmata.
13. Byzantium patriarchs and Roman popes disputed the rights and powers. Each wanted to be the head of the Church. They excommunicated each other.
14. Land was concentrated in the hands of wealthy land owner. The government collected less taxes from them, constant war with the Persians, and peasant uprising.
15. Kiev became an important commercial center between Byzantium, the Arab world, and western Europe. Byzantine artists taught the Russians the secrets of their crafts, and Byzantine bishops instructed them in Eastern theology and spiritual life.