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World History AP outline chapter 2

By candycorn55 Nov 17, 2014 1454 Words
Becca Corn
Period 1
Classical Civilization: China
I. Confucius’ Life and Early Development
A. Lived in late 6th century BCE.
B. Original name was Kong Fuzi
C. Searched his entire life for a suitable monarch who would follow his beliefs and restore peace in China D. He attracted many followers and disciples who collected his wisdom into one system of beliefs called the Analects E. some rival systems are Legalism, Daoism, and Buddhism

II. Establishment of Political Order
A. There was a long period of political conflict within China after the Zhou dynasty’s control broke down B. many states rose and fell along the Yellow and Yangzi River C. Nomadic peoples often raided Chinese farms, but many began to settle down D. Shi Huangdi- Founder of Qin Dynasty in 221 BCE

E. Qin- established in 221 BCE at the end of the Warring States period following the decline of the Zhou dynasty: Fell in 207 BCE F. Han- Chinese dynasty that succeeded the Qin in 202 BCE; ruled the next 400 years G. The Han dynasty led to much political control

H. Cultural Traditions
1. a family of kings (called a dynasty) would start its rule over China, but they would grow weaker over time. Then usually another dynasty would take over 2. The Zhou Dynasty
a. Zhou- Originally a vassal family of Shang China; possibly Turkic in origin; overthrew the Shang and established the second historical Chinese Dynasty that flourished 1122 to 256 BCE b. it really only flourished until about 700 BCE; after that it had a decline in political infrastructure and many nomad invasions c. Not a powerful government; worked through alliances; was vulnerable to regional disloyalties when land owning aristocrats solidified their power and ignored the government d. they expanded Chinese territory by encouraging people to move to the Yangzi River e. heightened focus on central government

f. provided greater cultural unity
i.) discouraged primitive practices of the Huang he civilization ii.) banned human sacrifice
iii.) made a standard language (Mandarin Chinese)
g. Confucius- Also known as Kung Fuzi; major Chinese philosopher born in 6th century BCE; author of Analects; philosophy based on need for restoration of order through advice of superior men to be found among the Shi h. regional rulers formed independent armies; 402-201 BCE is known as the Warring States 3. The Qin Dynasty

a. was founded by Qin Shi Huangdi who was a brutal, but effective leader b. Separated China into provinces, and Shi Huangdi appointed non-aristocratic rulers to each one c. extended Chinese territory to the South

d. To protect the north he built the Great Wall- Chinese defensive fortification intended to keep out the nomadic invaders from the north; initiated during the Qin dynasty and reign of Shi Huangdi e. ordered a national census and took data of everything from coinage to the axels on carts f. promoted manufacturing and discouraged formal culture

g. Shi Huangdi was extremely unpopular
h. he died in 210 BCE; a revolt broke out and the third dynasty was established 4. The Han Dynasty
a. lasted over 400 years
b. ruled similarly to Qin except they were less brutal
c. China was expanded enough so that it was in contact with India; this allowed more trading opportunities d. the most famous ruler was Wu Ti: he encourage much peace
e. emphasized Confucius beliefs; worshipped the philosopher like a god f. declined after about 2 centuries
i.) invasions from central Asia led by the nomads, the Huns
ii.) between 220 and 589 CE it was in a state of chaos until peace was finally restored and a distinct political structure was established III. Political Institutions
A. Strong Bureaucracy
1. Chinese leaders realized the importance of creating a large bureaucratic society 2. China had about 130,000 bureaucrats
3. Wu Ti established examinations for his bureaucrats that included literature and law 4. Wu Ti also established a school for gifted men
5. it was mostly upper class men who were bureaucrats because they had the time to learn 6. The Chinese were the most tightly governed people in any large society in the world 7. they did periodically break down

8. respected those in power
B. Roles of the State
1. China’s army fluctuated because China didn’t depend on steady expansion 2. government sponsored intellectual life (astronomy and historical records) 3. active in the economy with the production of iron and salt; sponsored public works; helped with the storing of crops so famines wouldn’t be so bad 4. there was a strict law and disobedient people had harsh punishments 5. there were taxes and manual labor requirements

IV. Religion and Culture
A. Confucianism
1. Confucius saw himself as a spokesman for tradition and he spoke about the “good days” before the decline of the Zhou 2. He believed a solid political life would emerge from honoring traditions 3. It was made up of several primary principles

i.) “do unto others as your status and theirs dictate- this kept loyalty in the community ii.) “What the ruler does, the person will follow”- means that people will blindly follow their leader’s actions. It is basically up to the ruler to do right so that his subjects will mimic the correct behavior iii.) obedience and respect were very important: people need to know their place; however rank wasn’t based on birth because anyone had the option to get an education iv.) he believed in kindness and compassion towards others, not force B. Legalism

1. they favored ruling by force, rather than with kindness
2. Human nature was considered evil and needed to be disciplined 3. the peasant class tended to be mostly polytheistic; focused on the spirits of nature; they created statues and emblems in hopes of getting blessed by a spirit C. Daoism

1. arose at about the same time as Confucianism
2. appealed to upper-class who were interested in more elaborate spiritual lives 3. combined the beliefs of the Chinese in nature’s harmony with a belief in nature’s mystery 4. It was furthered by Laozi who stressed that nature was divine and directed all life 5. lived frugally; politics and learning were irrelevant to it 6. It was often joined with beliefs from other religions and was generally favored by rulers because it posed no political threat D. Literature, Art, and Science

1. a set of 5 classics were written and used as a basis for civil service examinations; they included treatises, speeches, and political materials 2. literary tradition developed from the 5 classics

3. the ability to learn and recite poetry became an important mark of an educated Chinese 4. the literary traditions enforced Confucian beliefs
5. Chinese Art was decorative and full of detail
i.) it reflected the details of Chinese writing
ii.) calligraphy was an important art form
iii.) the Great Wall Of China was the only really remarkable piece of architecture 6. Scientific studies were practical and not so much theorizing anymore i.) Chinese Astronomers had developed a calendar by 444 BCE

ii.) they calculated the movements of Jupiter and Saturn and observed sunspots- much ahead of English scientists 7. Mathematics were also starting to made more practical; it led to furthering of acoustics V. Economy and Society

A. The Confucian Social System
1. There were three main social levels: the highest was the aristocrats, educated bureaucrats or mandarins; the second highest was the laboring class, the peasants and artisans; last was the “mean” people or the people without meaningful skills. 2. the mean people were punished more harshly than the other groups were for crimes B. Trade and Technology

1. the trade focused on luxury items for the upper-class
2. there was also food exchange
3. copper coins started to circulate
4. technology improved vastly, especially in agriculture, for the Chinese i.) plows were introduced
ii.) collars for animals were made so that the animals pulling the plow or cart wouldn’t choke iii.) pulleys and winding gears for mining
iv.) paper was also invented which allowed the people to more easily record information C. Gender and Family Life
1. similar to the structure in other agricultural civilizations; emphasized the importance of the male role 2. Parents could “do no wrong” and punish their children however they saw fit (even killing) 3. Chinese popular culture stressed having emotions in check 4. Women had defined roles

i.) they could gain power if their sons married
ii.) their roles were considered subordinate
5. Children also had roles, boys higher than girls, the oldest boy inherits what his parents leave VI. How Chinese Civilization Fits Together
A. Social and Cultural Links to Politics
1. Confucianism led to new laws and new ideas for the Chinese 2. They had the same appreciation for arts and literature
3. the government encouraged both industry and agriculture
B. Complexities in Classical China
1. there are divisions between the different belief systems like Confucianism and Daoism 2. they essentially hated the people who didn’t share their beliefs 3. People believed in human goodness, but harsh punishment for wrongdoings 4. However, in the end, everyone believed in tight control

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