Ch. 20: The Muslim Empires
-Nomadic invasions wasted much of the Muslim world w/ the sacking of Baghdad in 1258 • 3 new Muslim dynasties emerged after the nomadic invasions -New flowering of Islamic civilization; Competition(political divisions+military incursions -Largest-Ottoman from N Africa to S Russia; Safavid dynasty to the E; Mughals in Delhi region of Ganges plain -3 empires combined=largest Islamic political+military power ever -All 3 depended on firearms-“gunpowder empires”
-Origins from the Turkic nomads
-Religious fervor central to rise of Ottomans+Safavids, not the case w/ Mughals -Based on military conquest
-Absolute monarchies patterned after earlier Islamic dynasties w/ bureaucracies -Unique artistic+literary styles developed on earlier Islamic styles+non-Muslim styles • Differences
-Mughals ruled mostly non-Muslims(political+social policies diff. from Safavids -Ottoman policies between Safavids and Mughals; large Christian minority in Ottoman Empire -Empires divided by Shi’ite-Sunni split-Sunni Ottomans vs. Shi’ite Safavids; split(diff. religious practices, laws, etc.
The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders
-Turkic-speaking ppls had key roles in Islamic civilization before the Ottoman Empire • Collapse of Seljuk Turkic of Rum in E Anatolia in 1243(Ottomans could seize power -Turkic ppls migrated into Anatolia to flee Mongols/get free booty -Mongols didn’t bother ruling Anatolia(period of chaos; Ottomans ended up on top • By the 1350s, the Ottomans advanced from Asia Minor into Europe -Conquered the Balkans and a ton of other territory on the E Mediterranean -Rise set back temporarily in 1402 by Timur(civil war; reunification under Mehmed I -The Ottoman army under Mehmed II sacked Constantinople(end of Byzantine Empire -Ended up ruling most of the Arab world as well as extending all the way to Hungary+Black Sea -Formidable...
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