world civ chp 20

Topics: Ottoman Empire, Iran, Islam Pages: 6 (1346 words) Published: October 24, 2013
Lasting more than six centuries, this Empire was one of the longest, best organized, and most enduring political entities in world history. A. Safavid
B. Ottoman
C. Mughal
D. Ummayad
Correct Answer: B.
Response Feedback: The Ottoman Empire lasted from 1299-1922. It was carved up after being defeated in WWI. Turkey became the largest country formed from the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire founded by nomadic Central Asian people had gained overlordship in key territories from Anatolia to Delhi in north India. At its height in 1566, the Empire ruled a vast territory encompasssing many different peoples and ethnic groups. Its army and the bureaucracy served to unite the disparate territories into a single state. See map 19.1 p. 549. Sultan - an Arabic word that originally ws used by the Seljuk Turks to mean authority or dominion. It was used by the Ottomans to designate political and military supremacy.

Founder of the Ottoman Empire was:
A. Osman
B. Isma'il
C. Babur
D. Chinggis Khan
Correct Answer: A.
Response Feedback: The Ottomans took their name from Osman (r. 1280 - 1324), who had been a chief of a band of seminomadic Turks. The Ottoman ruler originally called himself "border chief" or leader of the "ghazis," who were the frontier fighters in the jihad. Osman's campaigns were intended to subdue, not to destroy. The Ottomans built their empire by absorbing the Muslims of Anatolia and by protecting the Orthodox Church and milllions of Christians in Anatolia and the Balkins. Jihad = holy war also a jihad could be a personal/internal strugle. Anatolia - the region of modern day Turkey

Founder of the Safavid Empire was:
A. Osman
B. Isma'il
C. Babur
D. Chinggis Khan
Correct Answer: B.
Response Feedback: In 1501 a then 14 year old Isma'il led a Turkish army to capture Tabriz (northern Persia) and declared himself Shah (meaning king). He declared that the official religion would be the Shi'ia sect of Islam and the official and mandatory religion of his new empire - the Safavid Empire. The Safavid Empire rested on 3 critical features:

1. loyalty and military support of Turkish Sufis (mystic branch of Islam) known as Qizilbash (nomadic tribesmen - and a Turkish word meaning 'redheads' because of their red hats). 2. utilized the skills of urban bureaucrats and made them an important part of the civil government. 3. strength of Shi'ite/Shia faith.

NOTE: 2 major branches of Islam:
Shi'ite/Shia claimed to be descendants from Ali, Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law. They were said to be the Prophet Muhammad's descendants. Ismail claimed descent from the line of 12 infallible imans leaders Persia is now modern day Iran and it is still a theocracy - ruled by a religious leader as well as a president. 1979 - American hostages held for 444 days in Iran. Country is still a major concern today. Pres. G. W.Bush called Iran along with Iraq and North Korea the Axis of Evil.

Founder of the Mughal Empire was:
A. Osman
B. Isma'il
C. Babur
D. Chinggis Khan
Correct Answer: C.
Response Feedback: Please take time to read about the formation of these three Islamic empires. In 1504, Babur (r. 1483-1530) captured Kabul (the modern day capital of Afghanistan). He then moved south and in 1526 with only 12,000 ben defeated the sultan of Delhi and captured the Indian cities of Agra and Delhi. Of the 3 Islamic empires, the Mugal Empire of Indian was the largest, wealthiest and most populus extending over 1.2 million square miles at the end of the 17th century (1690s). It had a population of between 100 million and 150 milion people. Mughal - a term meaning 'Mongol' used to refer to the Muslim empire in India (although its founders were primarily Turks, Afghans, and Persians). Please look at the map of the Mughal Empire, 1536 - 1857 on p. 596.

Question 5
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