The working memory model is the dominant and influential theory of memory designed to actively store information and refer to ideas that are thought of, or made available to the mind. Information can be manipulated when it is required during thinking, mental tasks, solving a problem or reasoning tasks (Cowan 2007). Working memory is important in daily life and the memory model gives us an understanding of how memory processes work when we perform a familiar activity, or when we decide to do a task that involves new thinking.
Baddeley and Hitch (1974) proposed the working memory model, which represents an elaboration of earlier unitary and passive models of short-term memory proposed by Broadbent (1958) and Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968). The working memory model is the theory of short-term memory, which actively holds information and manipulates it. The short-term storage is presumed as part of the mind that is capable of holding certain information for a limited amount of time, whereas the long-term storage accumulates information throughout an individual’s life. (Baddeley 1986) presented the view that for the short-term storage to be used within the working memory model, the correct information must be stored, kept active in the store until it is needed, then retrieved in time. For example, to remember a phone number until it is dialed again, according to the working memory model, the individual would save the phonetic sequence corresponding to the digits in the short-term storage; by rehearsing the phonetic sequence quietly to oneself it will be kept active in the store; and then mentally read out the contents of the short-term store while dialing.
The original model of Baddeley and Hitch (1974) and Baddeley (1986) composed of three main