Word formation and creation

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Topics: Affix, Word, Inflection
http://www.brighthub.com/education/languages/articles/59338.aspx Top of Form

Word Formation: Derivation and Back-Formation
Part one of "Word Formation: Creating New Words in English" covers the related processes of derivation and back-formation, which involve the addition and subtraction of prefixes and suffixes to create new words. Also included are printable downloads of English affixes and English back-formations.
Word Formation
Word formation is the process of creating new words. The following word formation processes result in the creation of new words in English:
Derivation
Back-formation
Conversion
Compounding
Clipping
Blending
Abbreviations
Acronyms
Eponyms
Coinages
Nonce words
Borrowing
Calquing
The following sections define and exemplify the related word formation processes of derivation and back-formation.
Derivation
Derivation is the word formation process in which a derivational affix attaches to the base form of a word to create a new word. Affixes, which include prefixes and suffixes, are bound morphemes. Morphemes are the smallest linguistic unit of a language with semantic meaning. Bound morphemes, unlike free morphemes, cannot stand alone but must attach to another morpheme such as a word. For example, the following two lists provide examples of some common prefixes and suffixes with definitions in English:
Prefixes
a- – without, not co- – together de- – opposite, negative, removal, separation dis- –opposite, negative en- – cause to be ex- – former, previous, from in- – negative, not non- – absence, not re- – again, repeatedly un- – negative, not, opposite, reversal
Suffixes
-able – sense of being
-er – agent
-ful – characterized by
-fy – make, become, cause to be
-ism – action or practice, state or condition
-less – lack of
-ly – -like
-ology – study, science
-ship – condition, character, skill
-y – characterized by, inclination, condition
Derivation may result in new words of the same grammatical

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